文章摘要
赵 骞,李芳吾.白寿彝先生的民俗学实践与理论[J].民族学刊,2019,10(6):95-101, 140-142
白寿彝先生的民俗学实践与理论
Bai Shouyi’s Practice and Theory in Folklore
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2019.06.13
中文关键词: 白寿彝  民俗学  实践与理论  借鉴价值
英文关键词: Bai Shouyi  folklore  practice and theory  reference value
基金项目:
作者单位
赵 骞 湖北科技学院人文与传媒学院 
李芳吾 湖北科技学院外国语学院 
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中文摘要:
      白寿彝的民俗学研究表现在两个方面,一是收集整理地方文化中的民俗资料,二是进行相关的民俗现象研究。前者主要体现在对《开封歌谣集》的收集整理上,作为民国时期民俗学研究领军人物顾颉刚先生的学生,白寿彝通过编辑这部歌谣集,来反映诸多社会问题,表达对下层民众的关注,追求唤起民智的目标。后者先后体现在若干单篇论文中,其新中国成立以前论文主要是对封建迷信的歌谣观的梳理,特点是多取材于正史;其新中国成立以后论文主旨在于辨析民俗学中的传说思想,特点是取材于当代人的研究成果和充分利用传世文献,同时批评相关无学理意义的论断。这两方面的民俗学研究体现出白寿彝在民俗学理论方面的深厚修养,以及民俗学与历史学密切结合、关注下层民众、适应时代发展需要的高度自觉,至今具有一定的示范和借鉴价值。
英文摘要:
      One of the characteristics of Bai Shouyi’s historical research was his concern for the lower classes and folk customs. However, little attention has been given to his academic thought from the perspective of folklore. In the first half of the 20th century, the study of Chinese folklore was rapidly on the rise. Gu Jiegang and other representative scholars of folklore at that time intended to transform the lower classes of society through the study of folklore, and arouse the people to save the nation. As a student of Gu Jiegang, Bai Shouyi was deeply influenced by this trend. On the one hand, he looked downward into the history of the lower classes of society, and on the other hand, he combined the study of folklore with the study of ancient history, forming his own characteristic style. Bai Shouyi studied with Gu Jiegang and other scholars in the field of folklore for many years, so, in his early academic career, folklore was an important aspect of his research. Although his achievements in this field were not many, Bai Shouyi persisted in the study of folklore. He continued attention to this field until his later years, after the founding of the People’s Republic of China, and published several papers. His study of folklore can be illustrated by two aspects. One is in his practice of folklore, and the other is seen in his theory in folklore. The former is divided into two categories: Collecting ballads and writing papers; the latter explored the relationship between folklore and history. An important characteristic of Bai Shouyi’s research in folklore is that he went from practice to theory. Qu Lindong once defined Bai Shouyi’s style of historical theory as “Bai Shouyi Historiography”. This generalization reflects Bai Shouyi’s historical practice and historical theory. As far as folklore is concerned, in a sense, Bai Shouyi also studied folklore from the perspective of a historian. Bai Shouyi’s study of folklore should be integrated into the system of “Bai Shouyi historiography”, and it is theoretically significant to sort through the folklore studies of Bai Shouyi. The Kaifeng geyao ji (The Collection of Songs and Ballads of Kaifeng) is the practical achievement of Bai Shouyi’s fieldwork in Kaifeng, Henan Province, and it is quite different from his theoretical research on folklore. It is a representative collection of local ballads from the 1920s and 1930s. This book cost Bai Shouyi a lot of time, and at one time he stopped collecting them. However, with the encouragement of his friends, he started anew and recompiled it. This book was published by Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou in 1929. It includes 47 children’s songs, 15 women’s songs, 4 rickshaw pullers’ songs, 1 prisoner’s song, 1 game song, 2 ritual songs, and 2 Khen Chi songs. As Bai Shouyi puts it, “Things reflected in these songs are quite different from the present situation, and the times have added the lustre of local social history to these ballads”. It is the responsibility of the scholars of Bai Shouyi’s generation to excavate local historical data and make contributions to the local culture. They aimed to reform the society and arouse the people. This book is an important material for studying the folk customs of Kaifeng at that time. Meanwhile, we can observe Bai Shouyi’s academic thought from his choice of material. We choose some of the songs in this book to make an analysis, and from these we can see some of the characteristics of Bai Shouy’s practice in folklore, such as: 1) paying attention to the concerns to real life; 2) paying attention to social problems; 3) conforming to the characteristics of folk culture; and 4) paying strong attention to the lower classes. Although Bai Shouyi, as a historian, did not have many achievements in folklore studies, his work are greatly valuable for this field. If the Kaifeng geyao ji could be regarded as Bai Shouyi’s practicing folklore with the identity of a historian, then the small number of his articles in this field can be seen as a study in which he internalizes practice into theory. The representative work of Bai Shouyi’s earliest study of folklore, wuxingjia de geyao guan (Wuxingjia’s View on Ballads), [Note: Wuxingjia is an ancient school of thought that explains human and cosmic phenomena in terms of the five elements], reflects his interest in folklore research, and it was Bai Shouyi’s folklore masterpiece in the first half of the 20th century. In the 1920s and 1930s the study of folk customs in China reached a climax. There were numerous publications, such as the geyao zhoukan (Ballard Weekly), beida guoxuemen zhoukan (Peking University •Sinology Weekly), beida guoxuemen yuekan (Peking University•Sinology Monthly), minjian wenyi (Folk Literature and Art), minsu (Folklore) and so on. There were more than 10 kinds of publications related to ballads. Bai Shouyi believed that the importance of Wuxingjia’s view on ballads lay in their ability to predict future events, especially the future disasters, a concept which is consistent with the essential characteristics of Wuxingjia. For example, the Wuxingjia can predict personal misfortune, social unrest, military failure, and political upheaval. Bai Shouyi believed that the predictive function of ballads can be traced back at least to the Spring and Autumn period, and is not necessarily a matter of custom, but of political significance. This is surely a new perspective, which is not entirely consistent with the view on folklore at that time, that is, the politicization as of the function of folklore, not just in the cultural sense. It is an exemplary work in the study of ancient history with ballads. By the 1960s, Bai Shouyi’s study of folklore a manifested abroader scope. The pace of the times always compels scholars to change their research methods, theories, perspectives, objects and contents. It is impossible for a historian not to be influenced by the times, but his works can also have an effect on the times. Although Bai Shouyi did not produce many work on folklore during the 1960’s, what he did showed several of the following characteristics, they: 1) used Marxist theory to re-analyze traditional historiography, and carried out exploratory studies on some ancient history; 2) combined the achievements of contemporary scholars (mainly Marxist scholars) with his own research; 3) gave a new interpretation to the historical data which previously had not been given sufficient enough attention; 4) appropriately expanded, to some extent, the intersection of history and folklore; 5) insisted on applying traditional methodology in the study of history; 6) criticized improper viewpoints in academic research; and 7) discovered new problems in the study of ancient history through folklore research which gave new conclusions. On the relationship between history and folklore, Bai Shouyi explained his basic views in an article published in the 1980s. This relationship can be seen as a basic theoretical orientation of Bai Shouyi’s views on history and folklore. Bai Shouyi believed that “the study of history cannot completely eliminate the study of folklore and that historical explanation is also necessary in the study of folklore”. This is his theoretical summary of the relationship between history and folklore. We could think of this in this way: Bai Shouyi had already raised his practice and study of folklore to a theoretical level by this time, and he believed that a historical folklore with Chinese characteristics should be established. At the same time, he considered the study of history and folklore as mutually supporting disciplines. This embodies Bai Shouyi’s theoretical interest in interdisciplinarity.
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