文章摘要
林晓华.文化自觉与文化适应:集体记忆理论与彝族文化的网络构建[J].民族学刊,2019,10(6):89-94, 137-139
文化自觉与文化适应:集体记忆理论与彝族文化的网络构建
Cultural Self-consciousness and Cultural Acculturation: Collective Memory Theory and the Reconstruction of the New Communication Space for Yi Culture
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2019.06.12
中文关键词: 集体记忆理论  彝族文化网站  文化自觉  文化适应
英文关键词: collective memory theory  Yi cultural website  cultural self-consciousness  cultural acculturation
基金项目:
作者单位
林晓华 西南民族大学彝学院 
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中文摘要:
      在新媒体环境下,彝族文化的传播已经不再是单一途径,而是多向延伸,各种媒介形态共同承载、分享,并形成多层面的交流与互动。论文以集体记忆理论为视角,探索彝族文化网站对彝族族群新空间的重构原则与发展策略;并进而分析了新传播环境下,彝族文化网站对于彝族族群集体记忆的建构,呈现出两方面特征:文化自觉与文化适应。
英文摘要:
      In the environment of the new media, the spread of the Yi culture is no longer achieved in a single way, but, instead, takes place through a multi-directional expansion. All kinds of media share and form exchanges and interactions. From the perspective of Collective Memory Theory, this paper explores Yi cultural websites and the principles of the reconstruction and development strategy for this space for the Yi ethnic group. I further analyze that the construction of the collective memory of Yi on their cultural websites, within the new communication environment, shows two characteristics: cultural self-consciousness and cultural acculturation. The media has reconstructed collective memory in various ways. In recent years, scholars propose the concept of “media memory” and believe that news media, as a carrier for collecting, editing, and recording social information, has a profound impact on people’s collective memory (Neiger, Meyers & Zandberg, 2011). National identity is the basic requirement to ensure the long-term stability of the country and is an important resource for the country’s sustainable development. Collective memory, as a strategy for cohesion, is often used to strengthen people’s identity to the country and the nation. Since 2001, more than ten Yi culture websites have appeared, including the Yi Peoples Network, China’s Yi People Network, the Yi Language Online, and the Yi Culture Network of Chuxiong, Yunnan. Most of these websites have official WeChat accounts and Microblogs. The construction of Yi cultural websites and the mobile internet communication mode has provided an important platform for the outside world to understand the Yi people, the Yi area, and Yi culture, and they have opened up a new space for the collective memory of the Yi ethnic group. In looking through the academic history and research dynamics of related research carried out at home and abroad, we find that both domestic academia and academia abroad have weakness in their research of Collective Memory Theory and the reconstruction of a new media space for Yi culture. In this context, studying the principles and strategies for the reconstruction of Yi cultural websites is of great political and practical significance for the reconstruction of the collective memory of the Yi ethnic group and the promotion of the national identity of the Yi. In addition this study has high academic research value. This article proposes that the reconstruction principles for the Yi cultural networks for communication should be as follows: 1) Dig deeply into the traditional cultural connotations of the Yi culture. In looking at the composition of the content on the Yi cultural websites, they should not only be satisfied with introducing the characteristics of the Yi culture, but should comprehensively explore the traditional cultural connotations of the Yi people. 2) Put specialized topics on the Yi culture website. Specialization of the subject matter is an important way to solve the problem of homogenized content found on the Yi cultural websites. The Yi website moderators should evaluate the strengths and unique resources of their own team, construct thematic vertically tabbed websites, and develop a special Yi culture database through collecting and organizing these resources. In this way the moderators can attract users and increase website visitors; 3) Enhance service awareness. In the wave of modern service economy, the service awareness of the Yi cultural websites are relatively weak. Only through a good marketing service can the Yi cultural websites gain an advantage in development. The reconstruction strategy of the Yi culture website should be as follows: 1) Build a brand image. The Yi people have a profound Yi culture with distinctive features. The Yi cultural websites have the potential and resources to build a well-known cultural brand. Once the brand is formed, it will be a premium and value-added resource for the public. 2) Explore multiple operating modes. The operational mode is the business operational structure formed by the enterprise in its own competitive development, which directly affects the core competitiveness and development trends of the enterprise. Within the context of cultural market competition, the operation and management of the Yi cultural website determines the rise and fall of the website. In development, the Yi cultural website can consider establishing its own profit model via online advertising and e-commerce. 3) Actively building new media. The Yi cultural website should actively strengthen its interaction with users through the construction of an official WeChat account, WeChat group, QQ group, public message, online forum, etc. Doing this will expand the network communication space of Yi culture. “In the process of constructing group memory, modern media functions like archeologists who are good at discovering and are always trying their best to remove the dust off history and dig into the past to find new meaning for modern life.” Under the new media, the construction work done by the Yi cultural websites for group memory of the Yi shows two features: cultural self-awareness and cultural acculturation. At present, the basic situation of the traditional culture of China’s ethnic minorities is “the coexistence of three phenomena: revival, decline, and mutation”. However, in general, “decline is predominant”, and this includes traditional Yi culture as well. Under the influence of mainstream culture and new media culture, both the language and culture of the Yi are facing decline and “cultural crisis”. The moderators of the Yi cultural websites are mostly individual intellectuals. They all have a sense of cultural self-awareness and cultural protection. They spontaneously used Yi cultural websites and their mobile internet communication to open up a new space for the construction of group memory, inheritance and transmission. In this pattern, the appearance of the Yi cultural websites reflects the high cultural self-awareness of the Yi ethnic group. The Yi cultural websites are a manmade cultural space which enables them to adapt to social changes and network development. In this construction process, what is important is not the truth of historical facts, but what meaning the chosen “historical facts” (both real and fiction) contains for the Yi ethnic people. In other words, the memory of Yi group constructed by the Yi cultural website is an “imaginary ethnic community”. Cultural Acculturation refers to the phenomenon in which members from different cultural groups change one or both of their original cultural models through mutual contact. Berry (1990) summarized the problems faced by ethnic minorities in the process of cultural adaptation. One is whether they can maintain and develop the characteristics of their own culture. The other one is whether they are able to achieve cross-ethnic communication and exchange with mainstream society so that they can assess and build positive relationships with them. In the new media society, online culture is a strong culture itself. A series of changes and adjustments occur in the contact between Yi culture and online culture. The construction of the Yi cultural website is the adaption of Yi culture to network culture (strong culture). The Yi cultural website has two major functions: The first one is that it has a digital storage function for the Yi culture; the other one, as mentioned above, is that the Yi cultural website is also a commercial body that is part of the market economy. The website has completed a new round of media constructions on the production, dissemination and consumption of Yi cultural symbols, and made it a collective symbol of the Yi people which helps it exist and be maintained. In the new communication environment, the cultural spread of the Yi culture no longer depends on a single way, but now has a multi-directional expansion combined with multiple kinds of media to carry and share the message. Therefore, the development of the Yi cultural website should have both clear cultural self-consciousness and cultural acculturation. The spread of Yi culture should use new communication methods and forms, and give more consideration on how to interact with mainstream, or strong cultures, in order to highlight the vision for the global communication of Yi internet culture.
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