文章摘要
秦和平.邓小平四川藏区民主改革思想与实践[J].民族学刊,2019,10(6):52-60, 125-126
邓小平四川藏区民主改革思想与实践
Deng Xiaoping’s Thought and Practice Regarding Democratic Reform in the Tibetan Areas of Sichuan
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2019.06.07
中文关键词: 邓小平  民主改革  四川藏区  制度改变
英文关键词: Deng Xiaoping  democratic reform  Tibetan areas in Sichuan  systematic transformation
基金项目:
作者单位
秦和平 西南民族大学西南民族研究院 
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中文摘要:
      民主改革是20世纪中后期中国共产党采取协商方式,领导部分边疆民族地区上层人士及劳动人民,开展以废除奴隶制或农奴制、消除剥削压迫、土地改革为中心的社会改造。建国初期,邓小平等依据民主主义的任务,结合民族地区实际,提出采取协商方式、实行宽大措施开展土改的构想。再经总结,提升为民主改革(和平协商土地改革、直接过渡),载之宪法,成为共产党的“既定方针”,改造部分民族旧社会形态。即使采取协商方式开展改革,也有可能遭到反对。针对叛乱,邓小平确定“政治争取为主与军事打击结合”的方针,组织群众,平息叛乱,保障改革、坚决改革。在改革上,邓小平及时作出指示,引导改革顺利开展,确定“发动群众、上层协商”的改革方针。“发动群众”表明改革依靠群众;“上层协商”反映用“赎买”施以改革,从而形成有中国特色的社会改造方式。文章通过对为什么要改革、怎样改革、依靠谁改革,以及如何对待叛乱的分析,阐述了邓小平对民主改革的认识,也是邓小平解决部分民族地区社会形态的理论成果。
英文摘要:
      Democratic reform is a method of consultation adopted by the Communist Party of China (CPC)during the middle and late 20th century in order to lead the upper classes and workers in some ethnic border areas into carrying out social transformation centered on abolishing slavery or serfdom, eliminating exploitation and oppression, and land reform. It is a model used by the CPC to change old social patterns and govern ethnic areas. During the early years of the founding of the People’s Republic of China, Deng Xiaoping and other officials put forward the idea of carrying out land reform through consultation and lenient measures in accordance with the tasks of democracy and reality of ethnic minority areas. Gradually, this model was transformed into full democratic reform, involving two types, namely, land reform through peaceful consultation and direct transition. This was written into the constitution, and it became the “established policy” of the CPC that had to be carried out in order to transform the old ethnic social patterns. The reform of the Tibetan areas in Sichuan belongs to land reform through peaceful consultation, which aimed to eliminate the feudal serfdom system, complete democratization, and create conditions for moving towards socialism. The reform put an end to the rule of tusi or native leader, established the people’s political power through democratic governance, formed a unified administrative region, realized a comprehensive transfiguration of the old system, completed the integration of the new political system, constructed a unified management system, and eliminated the possibility of partition or even separation. The reform method used class education to mobilize the masses, organize themselves, form an advantage for the working people, train and appoint new types of ethnic cadres, and enabled them to become masters of the country. It furthermore developed Tibetan party members, and established the grass-roots branch of the CPC which played the core leading role. The reform freed hundreds of thousands of serfs and liberated them. It changed the situation of “unreasonable possession” (of land), and after reform the former serfs had their own land and livestock. In other words, reform enabled “those who tilled the land to have their own land” and “shepherds to have their own livestock”. However, even if the reform was carried out through peaceful consultation, it was still possible for it to trigger some opposition. Thus, in response to the rebellion, Deng Xiaoping determined a policy of “combining peaceful consultation with military strikes”. This was done in order to educate the masses, quell the rebellion, and resolutely guarantee reform. In terms of reform, Deng Xiaoping issued timely instructions to guide the smooth implementation of reform, reflect the good objectives of reform, and determine the reform policy of “mobilizing the masses and consulting with the upper classes”. “Mobilizing the masses” means that reform relies on the masses; “Consulting with the upper classes” reflects that reform was carried out via the way of “redemption”, thereby forming a mode of social reform with Chinese characteristics. Deng Xiaoping played a decisive role in democratic reform. He initiated it; strengthened confidence in it; dictated policy; decided on strategy and so on, thereby leading to the complete victory of reform. Thus, while summarizing the experience of democratic reform in the Tibetan areas of Sichuan, especially in the Ganzi Tibetan area, we should understand the role of Deng Xiaoping in-depth, and use the facts to explain the relationship between Deng Xiaoping Theory and reform in the Tibetan areas. This article analyzes such questions, as why there should be reform, how to carry out reform, who to rely on to conduct reform, and how to deal with resistance to reform. It expounds on Deng Xiaoping’s understanding of reform, which is the application of Deng Xiaoping’s theory to handle social reform in some ethnic areas.
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