文章摘要
张晓蓓,张胜琴.论彝族土司治理权的近代变化[J].民族学刊,2019,10(6):39-51, 122-124
论彝族土司治理权的近代变化
A Discussion on the Modern Changes of the Governance Rights of the Yi Tusi
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2019.06.06
中文关键词: 彝族土司  治理  权利  近代
英文关键词: Yi tusi  governance rights  modern change
基金项目:
作者单位
张晓蓓 重庆大学法学院 
张胜琴 重庆大学法学院 
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中文摘要:
      彝族土司存在了七百多年,是中国存在时间最长的少数民族土司。梳理近代彝族土司在彝区治理权的变化,结合奏折御批、凉山碑刻、清代凉山历史档案以及民间口述史料来研究彝族土司的的地方治理,更能客观地展示其治理权变化的影响因素,其中可见彝族土司职权的国家依赖性,权利变化受制于中央, 并且始终与黑彝存在利益博弈,其社会治理权在国家统一与国家动乱时,有着极大的不同。国家政权稳定,彝族土司治理权稳定并得到加强;同样,当国家出现危机,土司权利也受到威胁。近代彝族土司权利变化正好与国家统一受到威胁时的权力的变化相对应。
英文摘要:
      Having lasted for more than 700 years, the Yi tusi is the longest lasting ethnic minority tusi among all the tusi administrations in Chinese history. In order to understand the changes of the governance rights of the Yi tusi in the Yi area in modern times, a combination of memorials sent by the Yi tusi to the court, approved documents from the emperors, stele inscriptions in Liangshan, the Liangshan Qing Dynasty historical archives, and oral historical materials can all help to illustrate more objectively the factors influencing the changes in the governance rights. It can be seen that the power of the Yi tusi greatly depended on the state; the changes in their authority was tied to the central government, but in addition, the Yi tusi were always engaged in a “game of power chess” with the interests of the Black Yi. The social governance rights of the Yi tusi differed greatly whether the country was at peace or in turmoil. When the state was stable, then the governance rights of the Yi tusi were both stable and strong. Similarly, when the state was in crisis, then the governance rights of the Yi tusi were threatened. The changes found in the governance rights of the Yi tusi in modern times corresponded to the changes of state power when the country’s unity was threatened. Historically, Liangshan was an ethnic minority area with an air of mystery. This was not just because of the geographical environment or its social structure. Even more important, was that the Yi people constituted the dominant ethnic group in this region. Compared with other ethnic minorities, the most significant feature of Yi society is its social structure which was sustained by the jiazhi or family clan system. This structure was one of key factors which made it hard for the Yi people to form a unified regional autonomous regime. During the period of the Nanzhao Dali Kingdom, the Yi people in the Liangshan area were partially governed by the kingdom, but practically, the area was managed by the aristocratic class of Black Yi. During the Ming dynasty, some parts of Yi area were managed by the Yunnan Buzhengsi (a local administration institution, equivalent to current Yunnan Province) and the Yunnandu zhihui shisi (“Du Si” for short; this is a local military department, equivalent to the current provincial military command), while other parts were either fully self-managed (intermittent, rule by the Black Yi aristocracy) or governed by the tusi. There was nearly no sign of direct central government administration except in those areas where the gaituguiliu policy had been implemented (policy which replaced the tusi with royally appointed officials). Nevertheless, if we look into approved documents from the emperors of the Qing Dynasty and local historical records, it is easy to see that the central government was highly concerned about the governance activities of Yi tusi in the Liangshan area as well as the social stability of this area. Due to the uniqueness of the Liangshan area’s geographic location, its natural resources and family clan organization, even if the Liangshan Yi migrated from Yunnan in earlier times, the lives of the Yi people in Liangshan differed from those living in Yunnan. Historically, the Yi ethnic area in Liangshan had never left the central government at more than an arm’s length, and the latter showed both kindness and severity in the management of this area. Every now and then, when some kind of major turmoil broke out in Liangshan, the civil and military governors of Sichuan would immediately report the situation to the emperor in their memorials. The emperor also had other channels through which they would know about the situation in this area. So, during the reign of the Qing Dynasty, the central government had powerful control over Liangshan. After the decline of the Qing Dynasty, the central state was divided and in turmoil, and, during this time, the state lost direct control over most parts of the Yi ethnic area in Liangshan. The governance rights of the tusi also suffered to a certain degree from this loss. The contradiction between the Black Yi aristocracy and the tusi became more and more serious. The tusi system in Liangshan was not totally abolished until 1954 when democratic reform started. In the modern governance activities, the Yi tusi, in order to maintain their own interests, vacillated between the central court and the black Yi nobles. The governance rights of the Yi tusi is a historical representation of ethnic autonomy in minority areas. This autonomy was achieved by the power games played by the aristocracy within their own ethnic group. There was a great deal of flexibility within the autonomous judicial administration of the Yi tusi in the Liangshan area. As long as there was no damage to the power of the central government, people’s livelihood and social stability, the central government was willing to grant a great deal of flexibility to governance and law enforcement. By taking a historical perspective of modern China and projecting this view to the Ming Dynasty and the Republican Period, we can see a clear historical line presenting itself, revealing the features of the kind of governance that was once carried out in this land. This paper explores the modern changes of the governance rights of the Yi tusi from three aspects: 1) The conferment and inheritance of the tusi’s governance rights. The governance rights of the tusi which we discuss here refer to the governance rights granted by the state to the tusi in his region. So, the source of the governance rights, firstly, derives from the state. Secondly, the governance rights refer to the management, continuation and termination of the state. The original rights (customary rights) held previously before being granted by the state are not discussed in this paper. 2) The management of tusi’s governance rights — Official salary, rewards and punishments. A tusi was an official appointed by the central government to autonomously administer the affairs in a minority area. First of all, a tusi was awarded an official seal by the central government, which was the symbol of the central government’s in a feudal country. Secondly, the central government had specific rules for rewarding and punishing the tusi. The review and examination of a tusi’s performance most likely dates back to the Yuan Dynasty when the tusi system was initially established. Evidence is also found in stele inscriptions discovered in the Liangshan area in modern times. 3) The alteration of tusi’s governance rights — Interest games and unification crisis. Regarding the tusi Yamen in Liangshan, both local military officials and civil officers had the right of judicial arbitration (the same for the local officials appointed by the central government and military camps) as well as other powers within the category of the ancient judiciary. From the Yuan to the Qing, the central government never ignored the local governance by the tusi. Royal officials were appointed from time to time to supervise the activities of local tusi. According to the historical literature and records of the Ming Dynasty, “the central government appointed royal officials to assist the tusi”. Military positions including the “xanweishi”, “xuanfushi” and “anfushi” were successively set up and belonged to “weisuo” (military institutions subordinate to “zhihuisi”) and “zhihuisi” (meaning the local highest intmilitary commanding institution). According to the Memoirs of the Emperor Kangxi, “where a local governor is appointed, the local tusi shall take orders from him.” Obviously, local tusi were subordinate to the administration of royal officials appointed by the central government. The governance by the Yi tusi is a historical representation of ethnic autonomy in minority areas. Such autonomy was achieved by playing power games with the aristocracy within their own ethnic group. We see great flexibility within the autonomous judicial administration of Yi tusi in the Liangshan area. As long as there were no damages to the power of the central government, people’s livelihood and social stability, the central government was willing to grant great deal of flexibility to governance and law enforcement. The changes in tusi governance rights in the Liangshan area fully demonstrated that the tusi were clearly dependent on a united country. Once the country fell into turmoil and foreign invasion began, the powers of the Yi tusi in Liangshan faced severe problems. The game playing of the Yi nobles intensified, which lead to poor social stability. No measures, such as awarding positions, distributing salaries, or pacification, were effective for realizing local stability. Indulging in these power games within the ethnic group itself made it difficult to achieve long-term stability. The unification and stability of the state became the foundation for the regional stability of ethnic minorities. The modern changes of the governance rights of Yi tusi over 700 years have clearly proved this point.
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