文章摘要
杨正文,李建峰.承传与变革:明清两朝官服及宫廷服饰的比较[J].民族学刊,2019,10(6):32-38, 120-121
承传与变革:明清两朝官服及宫廷服饰的比较
Inheritance and Transformation: A Comparison of Official and Royal Costumes in the Ming and Qing Dynasties
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2019.06.05
中文关键词: 官服  宫廷服饰  国统  明朝官服  清朝官服
英文关键词: official robes  royal costumes  national tradition  comparative study
基金项目:
作者单位
杨正文 西南民族大学西南民族研究院 
李建峰 成都大学文学与新闻传播学院 
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中文摘要:
      服饰的政治性是中国文化的传统, 包括服饰变革在内的“移风易俗”,是在“教化”传统语境下帝制时代统治者时常采用的国家治理举措。但另一方面,官服或宫廷的服制要素却延绵承传数千年成为一种“国统”,且成为政权合法性,权力等级化、秩序化、伦理化的表征。明清两朝的官服、宫廷服制不因朝代继替,也不因统治者民族身份不同而发生后朝对前朝的全面反动,足以说明统治者对“国统”在政权合法性方面的重视。正是有这样的朝代变革与国统承传,中国这块土地上的文化核心元素才得以延绵传承千年不断,且成为中华民族认同的优良传统。
英文摘要:
      The political nature of clothing is a tradition of Chinese culture. The action of yifeng yisu or “breaking with old customs”, including the reform of costumes, was a national governance measure often adopted by rulers in the traditional context of “enlightenment” in feudal China. But on the other hand, the elements of official costumes or royal clothing system had been passed down for thousands of years and became a kind of guotong or “national tradition” as well as the representations of legitimacy, hierarchy, order and ethics of the regime. Although the Ming dynasty and Qing dynasty were built by two different ethnic groups, the official clothing system and even the characteristics of royal costumes of the two dynasties had close correlation and similarity. Therefore, this paper intends to explore the meaning of succession and evolution of the “national tradition” presented by the Chinese ancient official clothing system through a comparison of the official robes and royal costumes of the Ming and Qing dynasties. Shortly after the establishment of the Ming dynasty, Zhu yuanzhang or Emperor Taizu of the Ming dynasty, issued imperial edicts to abolish the “husu” (the Mongolian custom, including their costume system)of the Yuan dynasty and restore the costume system of the central plains in the Tang, Song and previous dynasties. Therefore, the royal dress of the Ming dynasty, to some extent, had restored the original tradition of Chinese official robes and royal costumes. What is more important is that the Ming dynasty, on the basis of inheriting the elements of official clothes of previous dynasties, formed a complete hierarchical system of official costumes. After the establishment of the Qing dynasty, the rulers followed the previous tradition of “breaking with old customs” for the purpose of “enlightening” people or getting people’s “allegiance”, and forced all ethnic groups of the country to change their costumes according to the costume forms and styles prescribed by the feudal court, as well. However, concerning the official clothes and royal costumes, it was more with a distinct feature of “inheritance of the Ming system” except that there were some characteristics of Manchu clothing. Comparing the official and royal costumes of the Ming and Qing dynasties, we found that there are some differences between them — especially the official robes and the royal costumes of the Qing dynasty have some obvious characteristics of the Manchu, however, it is obvious that the official costumes in the two dynasties are highly similar. Therefore, it could be said that no matter which ethnic group became the ruler of China in the long history, the orthodoxy and legitimacy of their authority was always demonstrated through the inheritance of “national tradition” such as costumes. At the same time, there were little changes of the decorations or supplement patterns on the official clothes which mark the status and rank of officials in the Ming and Qing dynasties. Instead, it was almost a continuation of the same costume form and system, which further highlights the recognition of the Qing rulers to the tradition of the central plains dynasty. It can be said that it is because of the recognition and inheritance of the “national tradition”, such as the clothes of the Ming and Qing dynasties, among the rulers of different ethnic groups that the cultural core in the land of China have been passed down for thousands of years and become an excellent tradition accepted by various ethnic groups, making China a multi-ethnic country with rich cultural diversities.
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