文章摘要
明 亮,王 苹.凉山彝族地区反贫困研究[J].民族学刊,2019,10(6):23-31, 116-119
凉山彝族地区反贫困研究
Study on Anti-Poverty in Liangshan Yi Ethnic Areas
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2019.06.04
中文关键词: 凉山  彝族地区  反贫困实践  脱贫攻坚
英文关键词: 70 years  Liangshan  the Yi people  ethnic regions  poverty alleviation
基金项目:
作者单位
明 亮 成都市社会科学院 
王 苹 中共成都市委党校 
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中文摘要:
      因地理生态和历史文化原因,凉山彝族地区长期处于深度贫困状态。凉山彝族地区的贫困治理是我国反贫困实践的重要组成部分,凉山扶贫起点比全国整体意义上的扶贫开发要早,其发展进程得益于我国扶贫政策、理论体系和实践探索的不断完善。在脱贫攻坚和精准脱贫时代,民族地区已成为国家贫困治理的主战场,相关经验对于全国和全世界反贫困具有重要的理论和实践价值。当前,民族地区脱贫攻坚正处于关键时期,需要尊重民族群众的主体地位,增强扶贫政策的有效落地性,处理好现代性与地方性的关系。
英文摘要:
      The Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture is one of the deeply impoverished areas in China’s “Three Districts and Three Prefectures”. Judging from the factors causing poverty in Liangshan Yi ethnic region, the fragile geographical and ecological environment is identified as the objective reason for poverty; the ethnic character which advocetes consumption and lacks the concept of savings is the primary socio-cultural factor causing poverty, and the leapfrog transformation of the social system is the historical reason for poverty. The Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture is characterized by both overall poverty and structural poverty. The practice of poverty alleviation in Liangshan Prefecture vividly epitomizes the anti-poverty process that has taken place during the past 70 years, that is since the founding of the People’s Republic of China. Since 1949, Liangshan Prefecture has, step by step, moved towards the center of national poverty alleviation from the perspective of its geographical remoteness, cultural marginality, and social-economic backwardness areas, and its main thread is poverty and anti-poverty management. Chronologically, the poverty management in the Liangshan Yi ethnic region can be roughly divided into the following stages: 1) Pre-1978: the relief-oriented poverty alleviation stage. At this time, the state promoted the democratic transformation in the Yi ethnic region, established a system for basic medical, educational and cultural services. solved the problem of the lack of basic livelihood services, thereby laying the institutional and social foundation for the modernization process in the Yi ethnic region. 2) From 1978 to 1993: the transition stage from institutionalized poverty alleviation to development-oriented poverty alleviation. During this stage, Liangshan Prefecture focused on promoting development-oriented poverty alleviation in its poor counties, and basically achieved the goal of 200 yuan per capita net income and 300kg annual per capita grain. 3) From 1994 to 2000: the stage of tackling key problems of poverty relief. During this stage, planned, organized and targeted anti-poverty practices began to be implemented under the overall deployment of the state. They achieved remarkable results in the large-scale reduction of institutional poverty. 4) From 2001 to 2012: the consolidation and upgrading stage. During this time, the state adjusted the poverty alleviation strategy and key support areas, and 11 counties in Liangshan Prefecture were included in the list of national poverty counties. Poverty alleviation in Liangshan Prefecture entered the national vision, and it was formally included in the development strategy of Sichuan Province. 5) From 2013 to the present: precise, targeted poverty alleviation stage With the further improvement of the system for managing national poverty and capacity, the deeply impoverished areas of Liangshan have become the main battlefield for national poverty alleviation. The strategy created a top down policy for poverty alleviation and the construction of well-off society. Various poverty alleviation resources from the government, market and society are continuously and deeply invested in the poor areas of Liangshan. As a result, the intergenerational poverty that has plagued the Liangshan Yi region for thousands of years is expected to be overcome. Liangshan is currently in a critical stage of poverty alleviation but it is also the best period in the history of the practice of anti-poverty measures in Liangshan. In order to solve shortcomings, such as lack of targeting mechanisms and inappropriate poverty alleviation policies, China has not only formulated relevant policies for the targeted poverty alleviation in deeply impoverished areas at national level, but has also formulated a series of special policies for the poverty alleviation in Liangshan, creating a good macro-policy environment for the poverty alleviation there. Liangshan Prefecture has fully enjoyed the policy benefits of poverty alleviation, and has become a model for China for winning the war on poverty and it has created a pool of resources for poverty-alleviation and development, which has attracted the attention of the whole country and even the world. Liangshan prefecture has become a model for poverty management that is jointly promoted by government, market and social forces. The poverty alleviation experience led by the government mainly includes: adhering to special industries for poverty alleviation and enhancing the development capacity of impoverished areas; improving the living conditions of impoverished groups and sharing the achievements of reform and development; vigorously implementing education and training to improve the capacity of the impoverished people; and enhancing counterpart-assistance to the poor and enhancing the external forces. Compared with the planning, organization and scale of government investment, the market and social forces have been characterized by randomness, spontaneity and fragmentation, which are often the public welfare behaviors initiated by individual or social (market)organizations. Of course, there are also poverty alleviation behaviors involving the public sector initiating organizations, individuals and social (market) organizations. “Cliff Village”, which came to the attention of the public because it was uncovered by the public welfare community, rapidly gathered various resources in a short period of time, and has developed through the improvement of infrastructure and rural tourism. This is a typical case of “multi-participation” in poverty management. Judging from the effect of practicing poverty alleviation in Liangshan Prefecture in the New Era, the improvement of policy systems, scientific organization and management, targeted identification of objectives, diversified investment and cooperative governance mechanisms, formed under the leadership of the state formed the premise for guaranteeing poverty alleviation in Liangshan Prefecture. The improvement of basic guarantees, such as living conditions, the improvement of the capacity of poor people and the support of characteristic industries, are important measures; the acceptance and positive response of poor residents are the foundation; and the continuous participation of market and social forces is an important supplement. Poverty in ethnic minority areas is a weak point that affects the overall construction of a well-off society, and its level of poverty management determines the overall quality of the strategy to combat poverty. Under the macro background of winning the fight against poverty and achieving comprehensive poverty alleviation, the ethnic areas, as the main battlefield of poverty management, face unprecedented development opportunities. In addition to breaking the long-established and unevenly-balanced situation with sustained policy support and resource investment, we should also respect the status of the masses in ethnic areas, enhance the effective implementation of anti-poverty policies, and properly handle the problems of modernity and ethnic locality. In a word, the management of poverty in ethnic areas should follow the principles of broad participation, full empowerment, policy inclusion and respect for ethnic culture, and it should integrate multiple forces and various resources to create conditions for the poor to enter the path of sustainable development.
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