文章摘要
张立辉,张 友.贵州黔南州传统民族特色村寨保护与开发利用研究[J].民族学刊,2019,10(6):17-22, 112-115
贵州黔南州传统民族特色村寨保护与开发利用研究
Utilization of Traditional Ethnic Villages in Qiannan Prefecture of Guizhou Province
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2019.06.03
中文关键词: 民族特色村寨  黔南州  开发利用
英文关键词: village with ethnic characteristics  protection  development and utilization
基金项目:
作者单位
张立辉 西南民族大学西南民族研究院 
张 友 西南民族大学西南民族研究院 
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中文摘要:
      贵州省黔南州布依族苗族乡村聚居区在传统民族特色村寨保护与开发利用工作中取得了较大的成效,积累了大量的成功经验,但也存在一些问题及不足:民族特色村寨保护与开发意义的认知有待提升;政府对民族特色村寨保护与开发利用的刚性规划缺失;开发的民族特色村寨功能单一;黔南少数民族传统特色文化的总体情况呈现复兴、衰退和变异并存;民族特色文化精品的培育顶层支撑不足;民族特色村寨开发与传统民族文化融合度不够;对传统特色老旧民宅价值认识不足。针对以上问题,首先应着力提升黔南州民族特色村寨保护开发格局,争取纳入国家改革试验规划;其二,抓住大数据与智慧乡村建设的时机,率先推进民族地区乡村治理现代化示范;其三,创新投融资体制机制,构建“民族特色村寨资源资本化金融服务平台”;其四,探索乡村房屋租赁权跨区域流通的体制机制,不断提升农民的物权收益;其五,加大民族特色村寨品牌建设力度,增加特色村寨旅游产品附加值;其六,完善村寨文化资源资产化经营监管体系,构建村寨文化资源保护利用长效机制。
英文摘要:
      Villages with ethnic minority characteristics reflect the development level of productive forces, economic life of the ethnic groups, ethnic systems, ethnic relations and religious beliefs from different stages of the evolution of human society and different regions. They are valuable resources for supporting the economic and social development of ethnic regions for the present and future. Because of their unique geographical advantages, rich and diverse natural resources, profound and deep histories and cultures, great achievements have been made in the protection, development and utilization of villages with traditional ethnic characteristics in the Buyi and Miao rural settlement area in Qiannan prefecture of Guizhou province; and a lot of successful experiences have been accumulated. All of this is typical and representative. However, because they are constrained by both subjective and objective factors, there are still many problems and shortcomings. In order to explore rational systems and mechanisms, it is necessary to be guided by scientific theory. Only then can we promote the transformation and upgrading of the protection, development and utilization of villages with traditional ethnic characteristics. This can then provide empirical and theoretical support for the state in the New Era to carry out top-level policy designs for urban and rural development in ethnic areas. The successful experience of protecting and inheriting villages with ethnic characteristics in Qiannan is reflected in various ways. On the one hand, the trend of “unique nostalgia” has become the strategic fulcrum and comparative advantage of Qiannan prefecture in the New Era. The long passage of history has nurtured the ethnic villages in Qiannan prefecture nestled between the green mountains and clear waters as “an ocean of art and a paradise of healthy preservation”. Both the residential structures and villages’ folk customs have unique ethnic characteristics, which provide unique advantages for constructing a village with ethnic characteristics shared by the whole region. Many festival celebrations have enhanced the “left-behind” feeling of ethnic minority villages turning it into nostalgia, and they also show the worship and awe of nature and the yearning for a better life of the ethnic minorities in Qiannan prefecture. The economic attributes of characteristic village culture, such as the ethnic arts and crafts, or the characteristic residential structures in southern Guizhou are becoming more and more prominent. They have gradually become the new wealth for people of all ethnic groups living in this native land. On the other hand, the protection of these characteristic villages is orderly, and their resource exploitation achievements are remarkable. Successive party committees and governments in Qiannan prefecture attach great importance to the protection, development and utilization of villages with ethnic characteristics and ethnic culture. A considerable number of villages with ethnic characteristics have the ability to receive visitors from the outside. Those developed villages with ethnic characteristics in Qiannan prefecture have initially formed a rural tourism development model which combines ethnic culture sightseeing, ethnic food, health trends and an appreciation for ecological agriculture. The employment capacity and level of comprehensive income generation coming from cultural tourism have been steadily improving. The villages with ethnic characteristics in southern Guizhou feature prominently among those receiving honors and awards. For example, awards for villages with Chinese ethnic minority characteristics, listings on the ethnic intangible cultural heritage list, the provincial intangible cultural heritage list and cultural boutiques with the characteristics of ethnic minorities. There are, however, certain major problems and shortcomings in the protection, development and utilization of villages with ethnic characteristics in Qiannan prefecture. First, recognition of the significance of protection and development of villages with ethnic characteristics needs to be improved. Second, the lack of strong planning with regard to the protection and development and utilization of villages with ethnic characteristics by the government has led to fragmented and disorderly development. Third, the function of these villages with ethnic characteristics is singular, and the orientation of the development and construction of villages with ethnic characteristics needs to be upgraded. Fourth, the overall situation of the traditional characteristic cultures of ethnic minorities in southern Guizhou is the co-existence of the revival, decline and variation, and the loss and decline of the tangible culture, behavioral culture and spiritual culture of ethnic minorities are becoming more and more serious. Fifth, high-quality cultural products with ethnic characteristics lack support from the top. The transmission of the ethnic cultures lack human and financial resources and policy support at the national and provincial levels. Sixth, the development of villages with ethnic characteristics and the integration of traditional ethnic culture is not sufficient. Seventh, there is a lack of understanding of the value of the old houses with traditional characteristics, and tearing down old houses and the construction of new houses by returning migrant workers has greatly damaged the traditional villages. The problems existing in the protection, development and utilization of traditional ethnic villages in Qiannan Prefecture are representative of problems in other ethnic areas. In order to solve these problems, we must adhere to the new concept of “innovation, coordination, greenness, openness and sharing” as a guideline for development, and we should start from the following aspects: 1) improve the protection and development frameworks of villages with ethnic characteristics in Qiannan Prefecture, and strive to include them in the pilot plan for national reform. We should construct “experimental villages for sharing ethnic characteristics” in Qiannan prefecture based on the national strategy of agricultural supply-side structural reform; break through the single function of tourism, and improve the sharing capacity of the villages with the overload of urban areas; explore the system and mechanisms of introducing high quality medicine, health, education and other resources from the urban areas into the villages with ethnic characteristics; use the urban-rural sharing mechanism to activate the capitalization of village resources with ethnic characteristics, and at the same time resolve the dilemma of the overload on urban area; explore the institutional mechanisms of cross-regional circulation of the right to use houses in villages with ethnic characteristics, and to strive for recognition and support at the national level. 2) seize the opportunity of using big data and the construction of an “smart” countryside to take the lead in promoting the demonstration of modernization of rural governance in ethnic minority areas. In order to take the lead in promoting modernizing rural governance, it is suggested that “the Master Plan for the Protection, Development and Utilization of Villages with Ethnic Characteristics in Qiannan Prefecture” should be compiled; explore the systems mechanism of integrating multiple rules and r+H5egulations, and find samples in the modernization of rural governance for ethnic minority areas. 3) innovate the investment and financing systems and mechanisms, and build a “capitalized financial service platform for village resources with ethnic characteristics”; innovate the mechanism for the financial investment system, make the access of relevant financial and insurance institutions more flexible and allow relevant financial institutions to set up branches and carry out business in rural areas of Qiannan Prefecture; implement a more open financial policy, actively explore financial products conducive to the protection and development of villages with traditional ethnic characteristics, and enhance the function of financial services. 4) explore the systems and mechanisms for cross-regional circulation of rural house leasehold, and constantly improve property rights income for farmers. The institutional mechanism of cross-regional circulation of rural house lease rights is the basis for rural areas to undertake urban old-age care, health care, and primary-secondary students for a rural education. The flow of high quality medical care, health care, education and other resources from city to village is mainly to narrow the gap between urban and rural public resources allocation, and is the guarantee for rural areas to undertake urban old-age care, health care and primary-secondary students for a rural education. 5) strengthen the construction of village brands with ethnic characteristics and increase the added value of tourism products with ethnic characteristics. According to the characteristics of ethnic agglomeration in Qiannan Prefecture, five kinds of ethnic villages, that of the Buyi, Miao, Shui, Yao and Maonan ethnic groups, should be the focus of development. We should explore in-depth the resource value of ethnic cultures, and explore the core elements of cultural resources of characteristic villages. Relying on villages such as Yinzhai, Shuiguo, Kapu, and Zenlei, etc. , we should form characteristic village brands with certain competitive advantages, develop characteristic tourism products based on the characteristic crafts, and the characteristic tourist food represented by the regional specialties. Starting with local handicrafts, characteristic ethnic souvenirs, local specialties and food, we should continuously improve the industrial chain and added value of characteristic village tourism products. 6) improve the management and supervision system of village cultural resources assets, and construct a long-term mechanism for the protection and utilization of village cultural resources. On the one hand, a strong valuation system of village cultural resources assets should be established, forming a scientific and reasonable method, principle and specific index system for evaluating village cultural resources assets, and involve the village cultural resources assets into the quantitative management system. On the other hand, we should improve the property rights services and supervision system of cultural resources in characteristic village, starting with the special property rights of village cultural resources and insist on the principle of reducing the transaction cost and specialization loss of protective development, reasonably define the rights and interests relationships among local governments, investors, villagers, cultural inheritors and other stakeholders, restrain the short-term development behavior of the strong party in the interest game, form a long-term mechanism that pays equal attention to protection, as well as development and utilization.
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