文章摘要
恩 佳,李鹏飞.新时代收入分配理论及实践探究——兼论民族地区精准扶贫[J].民族学刊,2019,10(6):9-16, 109-111
新时代收入分配理论及实践探究——兼论民族地区精准扶贫
A Study of Income Distribution Theory and Practice in the New Era — Discussions on Precise Poverty Alleviation in Ethnic Areas
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2019.06.02
中文关键词: 收入分配理论  新时代  政府和市场  精准扶贫
英文关键词: income distribution theory  the New Era  government and market  distribution policy
基金项目:
作者单位
恩 佳 西南民族大学 
李鹏飞 西南民族大学经济学院 
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中文摘要:
      当前我国已经进入新时代,社会主要矛盾发生了历史转化,党的十九大报告指出我们更需要解决好发展不平衡不充分的阶段难题。收入分配制度改革涉及利益范围广、程度深、是关键性改革,是完善社会主义市场经济体制的一项重要任务。本文立足于马克思主义相关论断,回顾了我国收入分配制度建立及改革开放以来的历次重要调整,对新时代收入分配理论的创新发展进行了梳理,重点探讨了如何有效发挥政府与市场作用、三次收入分配的政策选择问题,兼述民族地区精准扶贫的重要意义及下一步有效减贫路径。认真领会新时代收入分配思想,继续推进扶贫减贫,健全完善体现效率、促进公平的收入分配制度,可以实现公平与效率的动态合理均衡。
英文摘要:
      The construction of an income distribution system is a strategic fulcrum that concerns the people’s well-being and a promotion of the development of China’s socialist modernization. It is also one of the basic issues discussed in applied economics. At present, China has entered a New Era, and the principal social contradictions have undergone a historical transformation. The 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China points out that some of the acute problems caused by unbalanced and inadequate development are still waiting for solutions. The reform of the income distribution system involves a wide range of interests and, to a deep degree; it is a key reform and an important task for improving the socialist market economy. Based on relevant Marxist arguments, this paper reviews the establishment of China’s income distribution system and important adjustments of the system that have taken place since reform and opening up. It summarizes the innovative development of the socialist income distribution theory in the New Era and also probes into the significance of precise poverty alleviation in ethnic areas. In the early years of the New China, we followed the socialist distribution system based upon work. However, the accelerated construction of the socialist planned economy and the widespread occupation of the “left-leaning” ideology led to the implementation of egalitarian distribution. This seriously dampened the enthusiasm of the working people for production, and also seriously hindered China’s socialist development. Since the period of reform and opening up, there have been five major adjustments to the income distribution system and its policy orientation. The first adjustment began in 1978, the early stage of the period of reform and opening up, during which we broke egalitarianism, promoted the principle of “distribution according to work”, and, for the first time, implemented a fair distribution of labor income. The second adjustment began with the convening of the 13th National Congress of the CPC in 1987. Profound changes in the distribution of income appeared – this clearly illustrated that the distribution mode in the primary stage of socialism could not be singular, and that we must adhere to the principle of distribution according to work as the main body, with other distribution methods as supplementary, and, furthermore, that we must pay attention to the equality of distribution results (Zeng, Hu, 2009). The third adjustment began with the convening of the Third Plenary Session of the 14th Central Committee of the CPC in 1993. This adjustment explicitly set forth the need to establish a reasonable system of individual income distribution system and a social security system by founding “an income distribution system with the principle of distribution according to work done as the main body while giving priority to efficiency and stressing fairness”; Upon entering the new millennium, the 16th CPC National Congress in 2002 announced the fourth adjustment. This stated that we should establish the principle that labor, capital, technology, managerial expertise and other production factors participate in the distribution of income in accordance with their respective contributions, thereby improving the system under which distribution according to work is dominant and a variety of modes of distribution coexist. It affirmed the important position of labor and non-labor factors respectively (Liu Wei, 2018). The fifth adjustment was to deepen the reform of the income distribution system since the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012. It adhered to the people-centered philosophy of development, systematically put forward the policy that both primary distribution and redistribution should give consideration to efficiency and equity, and redistribution should pay more attention to equity. The new thinking on socialism with Chinese characteristics for a New Era was developed and innovations were made to the theory of socialist income distribution. 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