文章摘要
郑长德.伟大的跨越:中国少数民族地区经济发展70年[J].民族学刊,2019,10(6):1-8, 106-108
伟大的跨越:中国少数民族地区经济发展70年
A Great Leap — 70 Years of Economic Development in China’s Ethnic Minority Areas
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2019.06.01
中文关键词: 70年  民族地区  经济发展  结构变迁  成果共享
英文关键词: ethnic areas  economic development  leapfrog  70 years
基金项目:
作者单位
郑长德 西南民族大学经济学院 
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中文摘要:
      2019年,是中华人民共和国成立70周年。70年来,作为全国宏观区域经济的重要战略组成部分的民族地区经济发展取得了历史性的伟大成就。民族八省区70年来在经济增长、结构变迁、对外开放、成果共享等方面取得了突出的成绩。民族地区经济发展的伟大跨越,是在中国共产党领导下,坚持走中国特色解决民族问题的正确道路,全面贯彻落实党的民族政策下实现的。民族地区70年的经济发展表明:我党对民族工作的领导是民族地区经济发展的根本保证;推动少数民族和民族地区高质量发展是民族工作的第一要务;不断加大力度支持和帮助民族地区发展,始终坚持发展必须以保障和改善民生为着眼点和落脚点,坚持绿色发展,守好民族地区发展的底色和价值,大力加强少数民族干部和人才队伍建设,是实现民族地区经济70年快速发展的重要经验。
英文摘要:
      The year 2019 marks the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic of China. Over the past 70 years, under the strong leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC), and as an important strategic component of the national macro regional economy, the central government and local governments at all levels, have attached great importance to the ethnic minority areas, not only by providing policy support, but also by investing a great deal of financial and human-resource support. Therefore, these areas have made great historic achievements in economic development. Ethnic areas, together with other part of China, have moved from a situation of being closed and backwards to one of openness and progress, from lacking food and clothing to being comprehensively well-off, from poverty to prosperity, thus creating one of the great miracles in the history of human development. The Chinese nation has experienced a great leap by standing up, growing rich and becoming stronger, and is now striding towards a new path for the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. Based on the statistical data, this paper summarizes the economic achievements in eight ethnic provinces and regions over the past 70 years from the aspects of economic growth, structural changes, opening up to the outside world, and shared achievements. It states that the great leap of economic development in ethnic regions was realized under the leadership of the CPC, by adhering to the correct way of solving the ethnic issues with Chinese characteristics, and fully implementing the CPC’s ethnic policies. The high-speed and sustainable economic growth in ethnic minority areas is mainly reflected in: 1) the rapid growth of fixed asset investment; and 2) the huge leap of total economic capacity. The fundamental transformation of the economic structure is mainly reflected in: 1) the upgrading and optimization of the industrial structure; and 2) the improvement of the levels of urbanization (city or town). In addition, significant progress has been made in opening up ethnic minority areas to the outside world, and the fruits of this economic growth have been widely shared. Firstly, the lives of of all ethnic groups are thriving. Over the past 70 years since the founding of the People’s Republic China, the per capita income of the eight ethnic minority provinces and regions has risen several levels. Secondly, the infrastructure in these areas has been radically improved. Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, large-scale investment has been put into the infrastructure of ethnic minority areas. This is seen especially among the key projects implemented since the development and opening up of the western region, where more than 80% of these projects have been executed in ethnic minority areas. This has resulted in fundamental changes in the infrastructure in ethnic minority areas. Thirdly, decisive progress has been made in the fight against poverty. Ethnic minority areas have the highest concentration of impoverished populations and the deepest degree of poverty in China. Over the past 70 years since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, with the great attention of the central government and the support from all levels of society, and with the hard work of cadres and people in ethnic minority areas, the number of poor people in rural areas in ethnic minority areas has been greatly reduced, and poverty alleviation has been significantly accelerated. Over the past 70 years since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, through the leadership of the CPC, and by adhering to the correct path of solving ethnic problems with Chinese characteristics, and by fully implementing the CPC’s ethnic policy, ethnic minority areas have made great historical achievements in their economic development. The great leap that occurred during the past 70 years shows that: The CPC’s leadership in carrying out ethnic work is the fundamental guarantee for the economic development of ethnic minority areas. Over the past 70 years since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, ethnic minority areas have, on the whole, shown great signs of ethnic unity, economic progress, and religious and social harmony. The foundation for these achievements lies in the strong leadership of Central Committee of CPC, and this is the political prerequisite for the steady and sustained progress. Promoting the high-quality development of ethnic minorities and ethnic minority areas is the top priority of ethnic work. Over the past 70 years, especially since the beginning of “reform and opening up”, ethnic minority areas have profoundly implemented the CPC’s principles and policies, which has always put economic development at the center. As a result, the economy of these areas has geometrically improved, and the areas have realized a leap in their development. In the New Era, China’s economy has shifted from a stage of rapid growth to one of high-quality development. The principal contradictions in society have been transformed. Inadequate and unbalanced development is mainly manifested in ethnic minority areas. To eradicate absolute poverty in rural areas and complete the construction of a moderately prosperous society in all respects by 2020, and to basically achieve modernization in line with the rest of the country by 2035, ethnic minority areas must accelerate their development and achieve leapfrog development. Efforts should be strengthened to support and assist the development of ethnic minority areas. Supporting ethnic minority areas to accelerate their economic and social development is a basic policy of Central Committee of the CPC. In the New Era, the development of ethnic minority areas plays a more important strategic role in the overall pattern of national development. An important component of Xi Jinping thought on socialism with Chinese characteristics for a New Era is to strengthen support for the accelerated development of ethnic minority areas. Development must focus on ensuring and improving people’s livelihood. Over the past 70 years, ethnic minority areas have consistently “put the people and people’s livelihood first”. Basic public services such as education and medical care have been improved. We have insisted that development must focus on ensuring and improving people’s livelihood, ensure that all ethnic groups share both development opportunities and the fruits of development, and ensure that the fruits of development benefit local communities, improve people’s wellbeing, strengthen unity and promote harmony. One should adhere to a green development, and the characteristics and values of the development of ethnic minority areas should be maintained. Seen from their geopolitical ecological positions, ethnic minority areas are very important for the ecological balance and protected areas in China. They are China’s important ecological security screen, and have important ecological strategic positions (Zheng Changde, 2018). The greatest value, responsibility and potential of ethnic minority areas lie in their ecology. Therefore, the development in ethnic minority areas must give priority to the construction of “ecological civilizations”, and take the path of high-quality development guided by ecological priorities and concepts of green development. The cadres and personnel from ethnic minorities should be vigorously cultivated. Over the past 70 years, the Central Committee of the CPC and ethnic minority areas have made the training and use of ethnic minority cadres an important part of the implementation of the CPC’s ethnic policy as a major task of long-term and fundamental management; they have cultivated a contingent of cadres from ethnic minorities and ethnic minority areas who are especially clear in their positions on what is right and what is wrong, who are especially firm in their actions to safeguard ethnic unity, and who love and have strong feelings towards the ethnic groups. This has provided a strong guarantee for upholding and improving the system of regional ethnic autonomy, accelerating economic and social development, safeguarding national unity and stabilizing border areas. In the new era, the cultivation of ethnic minority cadres and personnel must be strengthened continuously.
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