文章摘要
任玉丹,韦小满.教育均衡视域下我国新疆少数民族学前双语教育发展的城乡差异分析[J].民族学刊,2019,10(5):80-90, 124-128
教育均衡视域下我国新疆少数民族学前双语教育发展的城乡差异分析
An Analysis of the Differences between the Urban and Rural Areas in Pre-school Bilingual Education in Xinjiang within the Framework of a Balanced Education
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2019.05.10
中文关键词: 学前教育  均衡发展  双语教育  城乡
英文关键词: pre-school education  balanced development  bilingual education  urban and rural areas
基金项目:
作者单位
任玉丹 教育部民族教育发展中心 
韦小满 北京师范大学中国基础教育质量监测协同创新中心 
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中文摘要:
      2011年以来,国家加大对学前双语教育的关注和投入,新疆实施了学前双语教育发展三年行动计划,学前双语教育蓬勃发展。随着学前双语教育的发展,学前双语教育的城乡差异问题受到越来越多的关注。文章基于2017年新疆学前双语教育测试数据,分析我国城、镇、乡学前幼儿入园率、汉语入学准备和双语教育资源差异状况。结果发现:农村仍有少量幼儿尚未入园;在汉语能力上,乡村学前教育仍与城市有显著差距;在教育资源方面,城乡差距有了新的表现,即农村教育资源短缺主要体现在班额和生师比过大,园区的设施设备已经基本满足需求;但城市幼儿园的教师队伍和硬件设备成为学前教育资源均衡配置的短板。据此,提出了建立健全学前双语教育政策制度和法规体系,加大教育投入并进行合理分配,打造高质量学前双语教师队伍,遵循学前双语教育规律开展教学活动等促进城乡学前教育均衡发展的对策建议。
英文摘要:
      Bilingual learning for young children not only develops children’s learning ability, improves bilingualism, but also assists children to enrich their multicultural knowledge, accept and adapt to a multicultural environment, and lays a good foundation for their future study and development. The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region began to implement pre-school bilingual education in 2001. Since 2011, the state has increased its attention on and investment in pre-school bilingual education. Xinjiang has implemented a three-year action plan for pre-school bilingual education development, and, as a result, pre-school bilingual education has flourished. At the same time, the concept of a balanced development of education has become a hot topic in society. Promoting the balanced development of pre-school bilingual education in urban and rural areas is an important part of promoting bilingual education and an inevitable requirement for promoting education equity. With the development of pre-school bilingual education, the problem of urban-rural differences in pre-school bilingual education has received more and more attention. From a practical point of view, balanced education is mainly manifested in three aspects: fair access to education, an equal educational process, and fair educational outcomes. Based on the 2017 pre-school bilingual education test data, this paper analyzes the pre-school children’s admission rate, their Chinese language preparation and bilingual education resources. In this study, six prefectures in Aksu, Hotan, Kashgar, Kizilsu Kirgiz, Akxoki and Ili were selected. According to the principle of stratified sampling, a 5% sample was selected from each prefecture. Two classes of children in upper kindergarten were selected. The tool for conducting the pre-school assessment is a performance evaluation tool developed by The People’s Education Publishing Company. A set of questions consisting of six modules were developed, such as simple questions and answers in Chinese, understanding simple vocabulary, understanding instructions, mastery of Chinese vocabulary, preliminary phonological awareness, and preliminary sentence awareness. The test has good reliability and validity. Pre-school bilingual testing is conducted using a “one-to-one test” with a PC tablet test system. The results show that: 1. There is an imbalance in the development of Chinese language proficiency among pre-school children. Whether in cities, counties, or rural areas, the development level of Chinese proficiency is uneven. 2. There are obvious urban-rural differences in the level of Chinese proficiency of preschool children. There are obvious urban-rural gaps in the scope of Chinese language ability in county towns and rural large-scale children. The Chinese language level of children in counties and rural areas is significantly lower than that of urban children. 3. Rural kindergartens developed rapidly after 2011, and consequently the urban-rural gap in educational resources narrowed. After 2011, the number of rural bilingual kindergartens put into operation far exceeded that of cities and counties, thereby greatly promoting the development of preschool bilingual education in rural areas. At the same time, as the numbers increased, there was no difference between the hardware and outdoor facilities of the rural kindergartens. However, in the dormitory environment, rural kindergartens are better than urban kindergartens. The proportion of teachers who graduated with a major in preschool education in township kindergartens is higher than that in urban and rural areas. Regarding the teacher’s level of standard Chinese, the proportion of rural directors who are more satisfied is higher than that of the city. It can be seen that in terms of teacher composition and quality, rural kindergartens are no worse than cities. 4. Urban kindergartens have more prominent problems in terms of hardware facilities and teacher structure. Although the quality of urban education is higher than that of towns and villages, the performance of urban and rural differences is very complicated in terms of educational resources. Among them, in terms of kindergarten class, the city is better than the country. But as for aspects of hardware facilities and teacher resources, such as multimedia equipment and the teachers’ level of standard Chinese, the urban-rural gap is not large. Village facilities are even better. Urban bilingual education has gradually become another manifestation of the imbalance of education, especially because the bilingual teaching team and hardware equipment are relatively insufficient. 5. The scale of kindergartens is generally unreasonable, and in the rural areas this problem is more prominent. In terms of the number of classes, the rural kindergartens basically meet the standards. As for class size, the class sizes of both urban and rural large classes are basically up to standard. However, the number of kindergarten classes in cities is too large, and the younger class, middle class and student-teacher ratios are not up to standard. This shows that both in urban and rural areas, the number of children expands the capacity of kindergartens. Especially in rural areas, the problem of student-teacher ratio and class size is more significant. Based on the current problems, the following suggestions are proposed for a more balanced development of preschool bilingual education. 1. Enhance the systemic nature of preschool education policies and regulations. The overall design should be based on actual problems, establish and improve the corresponding rules and regulations, thereby improving渠整獨敥†汳慹湳杴略慭杩散Ⱐ⁡睮敤†獯桰潥畲污摢⁩汬敩瑴⁹琠桯敦洠⁰楯浬灩牣潩癥敳‬琠档敯楯牲⁤楩湮瑡整物敮獧琠⁰楲湥⁳汣敨慯牯湬椠湥杤⁵䍣桡楴湩敯獮攠⁲癥楳慯⁵摲慣楥汳礬†条慮浤攠獳Ᵽ⁩慥据煴畩楦物散⁡䍬桬楹渠敡獬敬正湡潴睩汮敧搠杶敡⁲瑩桯牵潳甠杤桥⁶牥敬汯慰硭敥摮⁴愠捲瑥楳癯極瑲楣敥獳‮愠湁摴†異獲敥⁳獥楮浴瀬氠整⁨䍥桲楥渠敡獲敥†瑮潯†捣潯浲浲略湳楰捯慮瑤敩睧椠瑬桡⁷瑳栠敡浮⹤ regulations in the field of pre-school education in China, let alone pre-school bilingual education. Therefore, it is necessary to speed up pre-school education legislation, establish statutes to clarify the responsibilities of central and local governments, and strengthen supervision and inspection. 2. Continue to increase investment and allocate resources reasonably. On the basis of continuing to increase the investment in pre-school bilingual education, funds should be used effectively for pre-school education. First of all, rural preschool bilingual education should focus on how to improve the quality of preschool bilingual education, such as improving the number and quality of preschool bilingual teachers, and purchasing bilingual teaching resources. Secondly, in the face of the problems of urban bilingual kindergarten hardware equipment and teachers, it is necessary to raise funds for pre-school bilingual education in the city, and set up special funds to focus on key issues. 3. Create high-quality pre-school bilingual teacher teams. First, take effective actions to supplement the teaching staff. Secondly, through a variety of ways, improve the teaching level of pre-school teachers. Finally, improve the treatment of teachers and stabilize the team of teachers. 4. Carry out teaching activities in accordance with the discipline of preschool bilingual education. In the process of teaching, we should consider the characteristics of both the physical and mental development of children and the principles of language learning. Select teaching content that is consistent with the cultural background of ethnic minorities, develop a variety of game activities, create a Chinese communication situation, and let the children achieve development through the daily games. In order to promote the development of children’s ability in the Chi
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