文章摘要
李金兆.中国民族戏剧的近代转型与创新性发展[J].民族学刊,2019,10(5):73-79, 121-123
中国民族戏剧的近代转型与创新性发展
The Modern Transformation and Innovative Development of Chinese National Drama
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2019.05.09
中文关键词: 传统文化复兴  中国民族戏剧  传承  创造性转化  创新性发展
英文关键词: traditional cultural renaissance  Chinese national drama  inheritance  creative transformation  innovative development
基金项目:
作者单位
李金兆 山西师范大学戏剧与影视学院 
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中文摘要:
      没有文化的高度自信,就没有民族的复兴。党中央国务院做出复兴传统文化大计,十九大报告提出要对文化进行创造性转化和创新性发展,这为中国民族戏剧传承和创新提供了新际遇。从中国民族戏剧的近代转型来观照,中国民族戏剧正在沿着一条从传统到现代再到自觉向传统回归,进而进行文化转型的螺旋式演化路径,具有高度时代性、民族性和地域性,具有丰富时代内涵和强大包容性。要正确处理好传统传承与创新性发展的关系,注重从时代性、民族性、地域性上,开展“三创”和“三并举”,加强中西民族戏剧文化交流和互鉴,构建中国民族戏剧的市场培育机制,促进中国民族戏剧的创造性转化与创新性发展。
英文摘要:
      Current academics have made many useful investigations about the transformation, inheritance and innovation of Chinese national drama. However, the research and interpretation on the creative transformation and innovative development of Chinese national drama within the background of the revival of excellent traditional culture are still not sufficient. So, it is necessary to further study the relationship between transmission and innovation, and both the impetus and path of innovation within a certain historical perspective. In view of this, this paper analyzes the traditional transmission, creative transformation and innovative development of Chinese national drama from the perspective of the revival of traditional culture, and the historical evolution of Chinese national drama, especially its modern transformation and development. Chinese national drama has undergone three transformations in modern times. The first transformation took place during the late Qing dynasty and the early Republic of China. The tidal swell for seeking change, the influence of western drama and the birth of film promoted the comprehensive transformation of opera from traditional to modern for the first time. The obvious signs of the transformation were that the drama performance was moved from the square to the theater, from platform to stage, and from countryside to city, all of which gradually transformed the pure performing art into a comprehensive theater art. After experiencing the first transformation, Chinese national drama was transformed into one with a western art aesthetics represented by yangbanxi or the “model operas” created and performed in the 1960s and 1970s. This transformation was influenced not only by the strong political motivation in this special era, but also by Chinese national culture, the foundation of folk art possessed by the creators, as well as by the mature revolutionary literature and art of the Soviet Union. The stylized “model operas” during that period adhered to the performance process of “showing suffering-leading to the sublime-a magnificent process-the effect of inspiration”. By the 1990s, traditional drama had again been transformed into one with the character of modern drama. This transformation stimulated traditional drama to step into a diversified forms of modern performance space, and the performance environment became more open and diverse. Since the 1980’s, after losing its audience, the motivation for the third transformation was the dissolution of drama, resulting in its conscious return to tradition but with a more modern, free and diverse aesthetic platform. In the midst of performing Chinese national drama, Chinese traditional culture has undergone change, going from traditional to modern, and from modern back to the traditional with conscious modern aesthetic values. Chen Zhilin summed up the characteristics of modern transformation of Chinese national drama as follows: 1) Along with the transformation process of drama from traditional to modern, then to a self-conscious return to traditional, the performance form of drama was transformed from xiyuan or a small drama performance platform to formal theater, and then to a modern multiplex comprehensive theater; and from village to city, and then back to village. 2) The development of Chinese national drama fully conforms to the needs of the times, and is the product of political, economic, social and cultural factors in each era. 3) The diversified performance forms and content of Chinese national dramas have made them rich in connotation and inclusiveness. 4) Chinese national drama has a remarkable national character, regional character and uniqueness. The modern development of Chinese national drama provides a mirror for the innovative development of Chinese national drama in the future, that is, Chinese national drama can only survive and develop within the process of change. Secondly, modernization is the trend of dramatic reform, and dramatization is the limitation of its art. Third, “letting a hundred flowers bloom and bringing forth the new” is the fundamental policy of theatrical reform. The character of the times is a prominent feature of Chinese national drama. From the perspective of the development of modern culture, traditional Chinese drama also needs to keep up with the rhythm of the times and follow the rules of art. In order to maintain a long cultural vitality, traditional operas need to fully learn from all excellent cultural elements existing in the world, which means they need to continuously inherit and learn from the excellent cultures of other nationalities in the world, integrate with the world and carry forward the excellent traditional culture of China. As for the innovative development path of Chinese national drama, this paper puts forward the following suggestions: The first one is to insist on taking national and regional characteristics as the cornerstone of their creation and innovation. The emphasis on national and regional characteristics is conducive to shaping the national style and competitive advantages of the drama and enhancing the public’s acceptance of the drama. The second one is to insist on adopting the “three innovations” and the “three simultaneous supports” as the main focus of innovation in Chinese national drama. The so-called “three innovations” are: 1) Innovate the visual aesthetic effects of drama; 2) Innovate the techniques of expression of the dramatic arts; 3) build a complete system of transmission and protection for drama, and create a good social and cultural environment for the survival and development of drama. Moreover, traditional drama, new historical drama and modern drama all need to be developed and improved. Within this transformation and innovative development of Chinese national drama, the guideline of the “three simultaneous supports” should be firmly adhered to. The third one is to give play to the role of the market, build and improve the market mechanism for audience cultivation and transmission of drama. Specifically, one should 1) try to keep a balance between traditional plays and new plays in transmission and protection so as to meet the requirements of audience appreciation at different levels; 2) vigorously carry out the popularization of drama education, try to take the national drama as one of the local educational subject matter in local areas, and carry out activities for bringing national drama into classrooms, schools and minds, and cultivate potential audiences and talents for drama creation and performance from within the body of primary school students; 3) strengthen the construction of communication platforms and new media, make full use of various modern media means and public communication platforms to vigorously promote the publicity, promotion and popularization of national dramas.
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