文章摘要
宋阿依姆.四川凉山彝族民歌的美学特征及其可持续发展战略——以凉山、楚雄两州的彝族民歌为比较对象[J].民族学刊,2019,10(5):64-72, 118-120
四川凉山彝族民歌的美学特征及其可持续发展战略——以凉山、楚雄两州的彝族民歌为比较对象
The Aesthetic Characteristics of Yi Folk Songs in Liangshan, Sichuan and the Strategy for their Sustainable Development — Comparing the Folk Songs of the Yi in Liangshan and ChuxiongSong Ayimu
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2019.05.08
中文关键词: 彝族民歌  凉山  楚雄  美学特征  可持续发展战略
英文关键词: Yi folk songs  Liangshan  Chuxiong  aesthetic characteristics  sustainable development strategy
基金项目:
作者单位
宋阿依姆 四川大学艺术学院 
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中文摘要:
      彝族主要聚居于四川凉山彝族自治州和云南楚雄彝族自治州。彝族民歌作为少数民族文化资源的一种形式,它的特征是较为复杂的,同时也是鲜明立体的。基于当前彝族文化呈边缘化、断代式发展的现状,彝族民歌的可持续发展正面临巨大挑战。因此,发展彝族民歌也应从物质、人本、媒介等多个方面予以考察研究。通过比较可见,云南楚雄彝族民歌的推广发展先行,为四川凉山彝族民歌发展提供了十分宝贵的经验。四川省文化界对少数民族文艺的发展观念十分高远,因此,凉山彝族民歌的可持续发展前景可期,大致可分为“点”“线”“面”三个层面的战略规划:推出“明星式”彝人歌手获取“流量”,重视新时代的彝歌基层教学、搜集整理、翻译和学术研究,以及利用现代传播形态体现彝族民歌的美学价值和社会价值。
英文摘要:
      The Yi mainly live in the Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture of Sichuan Province and the Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan Province. As one form of the cultural resources of ethnic minorities, Yi folk songs are characterized by their complexity and, at the same time, are bright and distinctive. The musical form of Yi folk songs is concise and simple, approachable, vivid and flexible, melodious, and has a strong sense of recitation and narration. Important themes include the ancient myths and legends about the origin of the universe and human beings, as well as the ancestors’ understanding of natural phenomena. As an important part of ethnic traditional culture, folk songs are handed down orally or within some kind of active mode. They are known as the “living fossils” of historical culture and the “shadow of ethnic memory”. Their existence is based on the needs of the people themselves; they take words, sounds, images and skills as the means of expression, and have been preserved through cultural chains of oral instruction and demonstration. Yi folk songs are not only part of the creation, summary and sublimation of the musical culture of our Chinese nation, but are also the inheritance, dissemination and development of Yi culture. Therefore, Yi folk songs, which have strong local color folk art, have a broad mass basis, as well as a strong ethnic character. Yi folk songs can refer to ethnic cultural resources including ethnic texts, history, natural landscapes, human geography, myths, epics, legends, stories, ballads, proverbs, ancient books and records, and so on. The cultural characteristics embodied in these aspects are essentially practical, fluid, historic, intangible, communal and endangered. The sustainable development of Yi folk songs is facing a great challenge because of the marginalization of Yi culture and the generational gap in development. Therefore, the development of Yi folk songs should also be studied from many aspects such as their materiality, humanism and medium, etc. The dissemination of the origin and performance of Yi folk songs are mainly concentrated in Liangshan and Chuxiong regions. Therefore, this paper is based on a comparison between Liangshan Yi and Chuxiong Yi folk songs. At present, with regard to the research on the development of Yi folk songs, the pace in Yunnan is faster. A very important part of this research is to explore both the successful experiences and weak links of the sustainable development of Chuxiong folk songs from the aspects of materiality, humanism and medium, in order to constantly strengthen the inheritance and protection of Yi ethnic culture, and carry forward the inheritance and development of local ethnic traditional culture. Yunnan’s action not only provided the basis for the development of colorful, distinctive and pluralistic ethnic culture, but also provides valuable experience for developing Yi folk songs in Liangshan, Sichuan. A comparison of the development of Yi folk songs in the two areas indicates that the sustainable development of Sichuan Yi folk songs had distinct advantages and promising prospects, because its focus lies in the fact that the cultural circles of Sichuan Province have a very high concept of the development of ethnic minority art, and have connected art culture and literature. Based on an inclusive view of literature and art, it allows development to dominate the overall situation, and does not permit Yi folk songs to fall into a weak position of isolation and marginalization. The development can be roughly divided into three levels of strategic planning, that of “Point”, “Line” and “Plane”: introducing Yi “star” singers to obtain “data”, paying attention to basic teaching, collection and collation, translation and academic research of Yi songs in the new era, and using modern communication forms to embody the aesthetic values and social values of Yi folk songs. Generally speaking, the way Sichuan literary and cultural circles popularized Liangshan Yi folk songs is relatively tridimensional and comprehensive, and much attention has been attached to the development and popularization of Liangshan Yi culture. This is in line with the potential of Sichuan’s cultural resources. Compared with Chuxiong Yi folk songs, the themes and semantic values 汯畦愠扌汩敡敧硳灨敡牮椠教湩挠敦慬湫搠⁳楯湮獧灳椠牡敲摥†睶桥慲瑹†捰慲浯敭⁩汮慥瑮整爮⸠⁁†䥬湡⁲瑧桥攠摵業獢瑥慲渠瑯⁦映潦杯潫映⁳桯楮獧瑳漠牡祲ⱥ†瑤桥敲⁩奶楥⁤瀠敦潲灯汭攠⁴潨晥†䱯楢慳湥杲獶桡慴湩据爠敯慦琠敤摡⁩慬⁹猠楬浩灦汥攬†捡畮汤琠畷牨敥愠湣摯⁵慰捬捥畤洠畷汩慴瑨攠摡†慬⁡捲畧汥琠畮牵慭汢⁥獲礠獯瑦攠浳⁹慭扢潯畬瑩⁣映潭汥歴⁡獰潨湯杲獳Ⱜ†浴票瑥栠獥ⱸ⁰慲湥捳楳敩湯瑮†牯楦琠畦慯汬獫†慳湯摮⁧浳愠硩楮浣獬⁵潤晥⁳氠潡瘠敭⹯⁲䥥渠⁰瑲桯敦灵敮牤椠潰摨⁩潬景⁳獯潰捨楩慣污琠牣慯湮獴晥潮牴洮愠瑗楩潴湨Ⱪ琠桴敨⁥夠楡⁳捰略汣瑴甠牯敦†潡晥⁳䱴楨慥湴杩獣栠慡湲⁴楩湳整癩楣琠慦扯汲祭⁳猬甠晴晨敥爠敡摢⁩瑬桩整⁹椠浯灦愠捌瑩⁡潮晧⁳浨潡摮攠牙湩†浦畯汬瑫椠捳畯汮瑧畳爠慴汯椠獩浭⹩⁴䥡湴⁥琠桩敳†晭慯捲敥†潶晩⁶獩畤挠桡慤†摴楲汵敥洮洠慔⁨晩潳爠⁩捳甠汳瑵畦牦慩汣⁩摥敮癴攠汴潯瀠浳敩湭瑵ⱬ⁡䱴楥愠湡杮獤栠慲湥⁳奴楯⁲晥漠汭歡獹漠湳杣獥浥畳猠瑩洠敬敩瑦⁥琠桡敮⁤椠湰湲潯癤慵瑣楴癩敯搬攠癩敳氠潯灮浥攠湯瑦†浴潨摥攠汭潳晴†瑰桲敩湩整睩⁶敥爠慦Ⱶ督桴楩汯敮⁡牬攠晣汨敡捲瑡楣湴来⁲瑩桳整⁩癣慳氠畯敦猠⁡漠晦⁥楷渠瑦慯湬杫椠扳汯敮⁧捳画氠瑴畨牥慩汲†桰敲牥楳瑥慮杴敡⹴⁩佯湮氠祯⁦戠祩畮獥楲渠来獯捴楩敯湮瑳椠晩楳挠⁡慬湳摯†汶潥杲楹挠慲汥⁡浬攮琠桔潨摥猠瑥潬摤敹瘠敯汦漠灌⁩瑡桮敧⁳牨敡獮漠留物挠敦獯潫映⁳奯楮⁧晳漠汩歳†獢潲湩杧獨⁴楥湲†䱷楩慴湨朠獭桯慲湥Ⱐ⁤捥慣湯⁲睡整⁩牶敥愠汮楯穴敥⁳琬栠敶⁩獢畲獡瑴慯椠湡慮扤氠敧摩敤癥攮氠潔灨浥敲湥琠⁩潳映⁡奬楳映潡氠正獮潴湩杮獵⹯usness with the appearance of skipping, distinct rhythms, a wide range of sound, high frequency of melody change, great differences, all showing unique regional characteristics. One paragraph or two paragraphs is the more common song form, which is convenient for impromptu writing and singing. This also meets the usual requirements of “adding words according to the tune”. The folk songs of the Sichuan Liangshan Yi exhibit some advantages in sustainable development. However, this does not mean that there are no weak links and problems. For example, the cultural tourism industry of the Yi in Sichuan has not yet been fully developed; a platform for promoting Yi folk songs has not yet been built; and Liangshan still lacks a comprehensive and specific plan for the development of Yi culture. In looking at the folk songs of the Yi from the Liangshan area which are included in the Complete Collection of Yi Folk Music in Sichuan, we find that most of the folk songs of the Yi were created long ago, and that relatively few Yi folk songs have been created in modern times, especially after the period of “reform and opening up”. Therefore, there are still many difficulties to overcome in the development of Yi folk songs in Liangshan, Sichuan. As it happens, the development of Yi folk songs in Chuxiong, Yunnan Province, accumulated va
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