宋阿依姆.四川凉山彝族民歌的美学特征及其可持续发展战略——以凉山、楚雄两州的彝族民歌为比较对象[J].民族学刊,2019,10(5):64-72, 118-120
The Aesthetic Characteristics of Yi Folk Songs in Liangshan, Sichuan and the Strategy for their Sustainable Development — Comparing the Folk Songs of the Yi in Liangshan and ChuxiongSong Ayimu
中文关键词: 彝族民歌  凉山  楚雄  美学特征  可持续发展战略
英文关键词: Yi folk songs  Liangshan  Chuxiong  aesthetic characteristics  sustainable development strategy
宋阿依姆 四川大学艺术学院 
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      The Yi mainly live in the Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture of Sichuan Province and the Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan Province. As one form of the cultural resources of ethnic minorities, Yi folk songs are characterized by their complexity and, at the same time, are bright and distinctive. The musical form of Yi folk songs is concise and simple, approachable, vivid and flexible, melodious, and has a strong sense of recitation and narration. Important themes include the ancient myths and legends about the origin of the universe and human beings, as well as the ancestors’ understanding of natural phenomena. As an important part of ethnic traditional culture, folk songs are handed down orally or within some kind of active mode. They are known as the “living fossils” of historical culture and the “shadow of ethnic memory”. Their existence is based on the needs of the people themselves; they take words, sounds, images and skills as the means of expression, and have been preserved through cultural chains of oral instruction and demonstration. Yi folk songs are not only part of the creation, summary and sublimation of the musical culture of our Chinese nation, but are also the inheritance, dissemination and development of Yi culture. Therefore, Yi folk songs, which have strong local color folk art, have a broad mass basis, as well as a strong ethnic character. Yi folk songs can refer to ethnic cultural resources including ethnic texts, history, natural landscapes, human geography, myths, epics, legends, stories, ballads, proverbs, ancient books and records, and so on. The cultural characteristics embodied in these aspects are essentially practical, fluid, historic, intangible, communal and endangered. The sustainable development of Yi folk songs is facing a great challenge because of the marginalization of Yi culture and the generational gap in development. Therefore, the development of Yi folk songs should also be studied from many aspects such as their materiality, humanism and medium, etc. The dissemination of the origin and performance of Yi folk songs are mainly concentrated in Liangshan and Chuxiong regions. Therefore, this paper is based on a comparison between Liangshan Yi and Chuxiong Yi folk songs. At present, with regard to the research on the development of Yi folk songs, the pace in Yunnan is faster. A very important part of this research is to explore both the successful experiences and weak links of the sustainable development of Chuxiong folk songs from the aspects of materiality, humanism and medium, in order to constantly strengthen the inheritance and protection of Yi ethnic culture, and carry forward the inheritance and development of local ethnic traditional culture. Yunnan’s action not only provided the basis for the development of colorful, distinctive and pluralistic ethnic culture, but also provides valuable experience for developing Yi folk songs in Liangshan, Sichuan. A comparison of the development of Yi folk songs in the two areas indicates that the sustainable development of Sichuan Yi folk songs had distinct advantages and promising prospects, because its focus lies in the fact that the cultural circles of Sichuan Province have a very high concept of the development of ethnic minority art, and have connected art culture and literature. Based on an inclusive view of literature and art, it allows development to dominate the overall situation, and does not permit Yi folk songs to fall into a weak position of isolation and marginalization. The development can be roughly divided into three levels of strategic planning, that of “Point”, “Line” and “Plane”: introducing Yi “star” singers to obtain “data”, paying attention to basic teaching, collection and collation, translation and academic research of Yi songs in the new era, and using modern communication forms to embody the aesthetic values and social values of Yi folk songs. Generally speaking, the way Sichuan literary and cultural circles popularized Liangshan Yi folk songs is relatively tridimensional and comprehensive, and much attention has been attached to the development and popularization of Liangshan Yi culture. This is in line with the potential of Sichuan’s cultural resources. 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One paragraph or two paragraphs is the more common song form, which is convenient for impromptu writing and singing. This also meets the usual requirements of “adding words according to the tune”. The folk songs of the Sichuan Liangshan Yi exhibit some advantages in sustainable development. However, this does not mean that there are no weak links and problems. For example, the cultural tourism industry of the Yi in Sichuan has not yet been fully developed; a platform for promoting Yi folk songs has not yet been built; and Liangshan still lacks a comprehensive and specific plan for the development of Yi culture. In looking at the folk songs of the Yi from the Liangshan area which are included in the Complete Collection of Yi Folk Music in Sichuan, we find that most of the folk songs of the Yi were created long ago, and that relatively few Yi folk songs have been created in modern times, especially after the period of “reform and opening up”. Therefore, there are still many difficulties to overcome in the development of Yi folk songs in Liangshan, Sichuan. As it happens, the development of Yi folk songs in Chuxiong, Yunnan Province, accumulated va
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