文章摘要
张云鹤.物、技艺与地方知识:一个龙舟钉造的民族志[J].民族学刊,2019,10(5):38-45, 108-110
物、技艺与地方知识:一个龙舟钉造的民族志
Object, Technology and Local Knowledge: An Ethnography of Manufacturing Dragon Boats
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2019.05.05
中文关键词: 龙舟  技术  技术人类学
英文关键词: dragon boat  technology  anthropology of technology
基金项目:
作者单位
张云鹤 厦门大学人类学与民族学系 
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中文摘要:
      九龙江流域的龙舟制造,并非只是一个造船技术层面的议题,同时也与地方社会文化传统密切相关。船筏制造的技术与习俗,是理解九龙江流域社会结构的重要渠道。通过考察紫泥地方的龙舟及其制造过程,不仅可以探知龙舟在水域社会的角色,同时也为技术人类学视角分析其背后所呈现的社会技术系统与仪式传统提供了一个“龙舟”民族志学现代案例。
英文摘要:
      Dragon Boat Racing in the Jiulong river area in Fujian, is a local custom with strong folk characteristics and has a long history and a widespread foundation in society. The production of Dragon Boats is definitely a cultural behavior which links the special material culture of the “dragon boat” with the local society. It is also an important link for gaining insight into the characteristics of the social structure in the Jiulong river area. It could be said that the study of dragon boats and their manufacturing process can not only help us understand the role of the “dragon boat” within a society that is based upon water, but also, from the perspective of technical anthropology, it can help us to investigate the complicated techniques and manufacturing processes needed to make dragon boats, and analyze the socio-technical system and ritual traditions lying underneath. Based on an ethnographic investigation of the technology used to produce dragon boats in a village in the Jiulong River area, this paper attempts to explore the ceremonial construction and life history of a handmade item known as the “dragon boat” in the local community, and further analyze the socio-cultural significance the dragon boat has for the local people in the Jiulong River area. Zini village, the field site discussed in this article, has a highly developed “water system”. This is because it is located along the banks of the Jiulong river, and has developed a variety of livelihood models derived from water, such as fishing, aquaculture, dock manufacturing and repairing, water transportation, etc. Among them, the ship repair and building industry, which has developed rapidly due to the advantage of its location as a natural port, is presently the representative industry of Zini. Among all of the various kinds of “boat” themed livelihoods found in Zini village, there is one very unique industry, namely, the manufacture of dragon boats. The village is currently the home of the standard racing dragon boat manufacturing. The village is currently the main manufacturing place for standard dragon boats in China, and in 2010 “Zili Dragon Boat Making Technology” was included in the fourth batch of elements placed on the intangible cultural heritage list of Zhangzhou city. The origin and development of the dragon boat production technology in Zini village is closely related to a traditional popular folk activity in the area, called “pa long zhou” or “dragon boat rowing in the fifth lunar month”. This activity also refers to the dragon boat racing that takes place during this lunar month. At present, “dragon boat rowing” in the duanwu festival (Dragon Boat Festival) is not only the most influential local water competition in the Jiulong River area, but it has also developed into a wide range of representative folk festival activities throughout the entire river area. The prosperity of “dragon boat rowing in the fifth lunar month” also injected vitality into the dragon boat industry. The development of the custom of dragon boat racing together with the formation of large or small dragon boat teams provides a market demand for dragon boat production in Zini village, and enabled this unique traditional technique to continue in contemporary society. Although the dragon boat making in Zini now mainly relies on the demand for dragon boats that is generated by the flourishing custom of “dragon boat rowing” during the Dragon Boat Festival, the technology for making dragon boats in Zini actually originated from the local knowledge inherited by people in the area of the Jiulong river basin. According to my interviews in the field, when the ancestors of the Wu clan family moved from the central plains to Zini village, they brought with them many carpenters, and they became the earliest experts in shipbuilding in this area. Later, in order to facilitate the competition, the village carpenters transformed their daily boats into “dragon boats”. As the times changed and society developed, the shape and use of the Zini dragon boat underwent four stages: first, the boats had a double function of fishing and entertainment – second, a differentiation was made between fishing and entertainment – third, the professionalization of making dragon boats occurred – and fourth, a model dragon boat was createdved in making dragon boats in Zini are all closely related to the cultural traditions of the local community. In recent years, with the rise of the Anthropology of Technology, technology has been liberated from the pure craft level and given a broader cultural perspect⁩ve. As a anthropologist of t⁥chnology, Bryan Pfaffenberger pointed ou⁴ that magi⁣ and ritual as part of technological activity can help us gain insight into the social aspects of technology (Pfaffenberger, 1988), Dragon boat making in the Jiulong River basin, represented by Zini village, vividly presents the manufacturing technology, ceremony and the sociality it contains. In this community whose lives are dependent on water, shipbuilding technology and m⁡gical ceremonies form an integral whole. This is just what the ethnography of dragon boat making int⁥nds to show.  manufactured by the factory are mostly sold to people in Zhangzhou, Xiamen, Quanzhou and other places. In the area of the Jiulong river, making dragon boats is regarded as a sacred activity, and dragon boats are regarded as sacred objects as well. Therefore, its manufacture is filled with ritual, and the process must strictly follow certain procedures. First of all, because dragon boat manufacturing is generally the business of the entire village, whenever the village community wants to make a dragon boat, the village elders, known as the “old family heads” by the local people, after a consultation, make a decision. After reaching an agreement, the village will send representatives (usually 2-4 people) to take the orders to the dragon boat manufacturer. The main process of dragon boat manufacturing technology in Jiulong river basin is composed by the following steps: 1) selecting a date to “open the axe” (i.e. to begin the process); 2) laying the keel of the boat; 3) installing the water baffle; 4) making dapang (dabo in local language, refers to dash plate); and 5) making the ribs (or frame) of the boat. Just as the “boat” is regarded as the most important “item” for communities who live along water, the process of dragon boat making in the Jiulong river valley is filled with the “customs, rituals and magic” from the local community. The culture of local rituals permeates the whole process of boat making. According to the social aspects and background of the rituals, they can be divided into two stages, namely, the stage of dragon boat manufacturing and the stage of the boat’s completion. This is very similar to the canoe-building rituals in the cultures of the Pacific islands. Above in this article, we discussed the special rituals that were carried out during the process of manufacturing the dragon boat, processes such as “opening the axe” and “laying the keel”, etc. At the stage of the completion of the boat and its delivery, magic ceremonies would also be held, mainly including “beseeching the gods”, “opening the eyes” and “launching”, etc. It can be said that the ritual culture in the shipbuilding process of villages in the Jiulong river basin, such as Zini, is an important part of the local tradition of magic tradition. Despite the destruction of local beliefs and customs as society developed, the sacred system of shipbuilding has persisted and still plays a significant role in dominating community norms. Just as Trobriand islanders in Malinowski’s writing followed the tradition of magic in building canoes, Dragon boat making in the Jiulong river basin is also steeped in the magical culture system of the local community. Almost every dragon boat must abide by the abovementioned magic and related rituals during the process of building, and no village or shipbuilder would dare to violate this ritual. This profoundly reflects the sacred sense of these southeast water people have for “boats”, and it is the unique material culture of the communities in this area. In summary, issues related to the customs and techniques of shipbuilding andtheir use in the Jiulong River basin are an important content for understanding the process of the construction of local community structure. The skills and rituals invol
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