文章摘要
张明斗,葛于壮.民族地区城镇化发展模式及路径创新——基于四川、广西、贵州等地的调研分析[J].民族学刊,2019,10(2):49-56, 110-112
民族地区城镇化发展模式及路径创新——基于四川、广西、贵州等地的调研分析
A Study on the Development Models and Paths of Innovation of Urbanization in Ethnic Areas — Based on a Survey in Sichuan, Guangxi and Guizhou
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2019.02.05
中文关键词: 民族地区  城镇化模式  运行矛盾  愿景框架
英文关键词: ethnic minority areas  urbanization model  running contradictions  visionary framework
基金项目:
作者单位
张明斗 东北财经大学公共管理学院 
葛于壮 东北财经大学公共管理学院 
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中文摘要:
      城镇化是我国民族地区经济社会发展的必经阶段。探索民族地区的城镇化发展模式及创新路径,对于加速民族地区现代化进程、转变民族地区经济增长方式以及实现社会安定团结具有重要的推动作用。文章在对民族地区城镇化发展现状描述的基础之上,归纳概括出城镇化运行的四大矛盾;并全面总结出旅游产业带动型、工业发展助推型、边境贸易推动型、草原牧业发展型四大类型的城镇化发展模式;通过构建民族地区城镇化发展的愿景框架,结合民族地区的发展实际,最终提出坚持绿色低碳,发展城镇化的生态文明建设,强化产城融合,持续释放城镇化的发展活力,深化制度改革,实现城镇化发展质量的提升及保持文化传承,不断彰显城镇化的民族特色等城镇化发展的创新路径。
英文摘要:
      Urbanization is a natural historical process, and is an inevitable stage for the economic and social development of ethnic minority areas in China. The exploration of the development model and innovative path of urbanization plays an important role in accelerating the process of modernization, transforming the mode of economic growth and achieving social stability and unity in ethnic minority areas. By describing the current situation of the development of urbanization in ethnic minority areas, this paper summarizes four contradictions found within the process of urbanization. They are: 1) the contradiction between abundant resources and a fragile ecology; 2) the contradiction between insufficient infrastructure construction and insufficient investment; 3) the contradiction between “brain drain” and employment difficulties; and, 4) the contradiction between institutional obstacles and public interest demands. This paper sums up four types of development models concerning urbanization, which are: 1) tourism industry-driven; 2) industrial development-driven; 3) border trade-driven; and, 4) grassland animal husbandry-driven. By constructing a vision for a framework of urbanization development in ethnic minority areas, and considering the reality of the development in ethnic minority areas, this paper proposes some innovative paths for urban development: 1. Adhere to a green, low carbon principle, and promote the construction of an ecological civilization in the process of urbanization Firstly, we should establish the development concept of an “ecological civilization” and integrate it into the framework for urban development. Efforts should be made to promote both a green and low-carbon development so as to respect nature, conform to nature and protect nature, promote urbanization within the scope of the natural carrying capacity, and promote the unification of urbanization and ecology. Secondly, we should strengthen the construction of an ecological environmental protection system. We should formulate a red line for scientifically protecting the ecology, and delimit all important ecological corridors, wildlife protection areas, basic farmland protected areas, and wetland parks in ethnic minority areas into a wide scope for their protection and control; we should manage the so-called ecological control line meticulously, prohibit work activities or development and construction activities unrelated to ecological protection, and ensure that, according to the principle of “Requisition-Compensation Balance”, the total amount of ecological land is not reduced; standardize the approval system strictly, strengthen the approval process concerning the protected areas lying within the red line and ecological control line so as to ensure prudent and rational land use in ecological areas. Thirdly, we should gradually improve the system for ecological compensation, gradually expand the scope of compensation, increase compensation for the protection of wetlands and water sources on the basis of what they were originally; steadily improve the compensation standards and increase the financial compensation ; and broaden the sources of compensation funds. In addition to special financial investment, we should also integrate various special funds and establish ecological compensation funds, etc., so as to improve the efficiency of funds. 2. Strengthen the integration of production and the city, and continuously release the vitality of urbanization Firstly, we should strengthen the industrial support for constructing urbanization, strengthen the optimization and adjustment of the industrial structure, speed up the upgrade of agricultural modernization, new industrialization and the tourism industry based on the reality of the ethnic minority areas, promote the level of coordination and interaction between urbanization, industrialization and agriculture (animal husbandry), and promote the mutual support and integration of urban development and industry so as to form a pattern of urbanization of an integration of industry-agriculture, city-township and urban-rural areas. Secondly, we should build an ecological system of industries with ethnic characteristics so as to promote urbanization. Ethnic minority areas should construct an industrial ecological system with ethnic characteristics based on their own advantages. Especially in those urbanized areas driven by the tourism industry, we should construct excellent tourist routes, construct a tourism resources network based upon a “hub axis model”, and closely link tourist attractions and industrial belts in order to promote a coordinated development of urbanization. Thirdly, we should expand industrial space and accelerate industrial agglomeration. Ethnic minority areas should make full use of existing industrial clusters and industrial chains, expand the space for industrial development, encourage the transformation and upgrading of traditional industries with new, high level technologies, enhance the core competitiveness of industries, and promote the development of industrial clusters so as to support urban construction. 3. Deepen system reform, and improve the quality of urban development Firstly, we should deepen the reform of the household registration system in ethnic minority areas, release the restrictions of the rural migrant population from their household registration, realize a free flow of the rural population, and cancel the privileges and advantages which are given to urban household registration; and, in doing so, liberalize fully the residence restrictions of small towns in ethnic areas, determine the household registration conditions of large cities reasonably, and then promote efficiently the flow of agricultural population to cities and towns. Secondly, we should strengthen reform of the land system in ethnic minority areas. According to the requirement of “same land and same rights”, we should promote the equal rights of collectively owned land in rural areas and state-owned land in cities and towns, and truly liberate peasants from the land; and strengthen the land transfer system. By taking into account the reality of ethnic minority areas, we should adhere to promoting the rational transfer of land, improving the efficiency of land use, and avoiding the phenomenon of idle or abandoned land by using the guidance of the principle of “voluntary and compensation”. Thirdly, we should further perfect the social security system in ethnic minority areas. The social security in ethnic minority areas should be brought into the scope of the national social security system so as to coordinate all the activities of the nation as in a chess game; we should implement differential treatment, improve the level of social security in rural areas, and strengthen public services in rural areas. Finally, we should innovate the ways and systems of investment and financing for urbanization in ethnic minority areas, make efforts to set up an “urbanization construction model” which is led by the government, and fully engages social capital, and private capital, and, in this way improve the level of urban infrastructure construction in ethnic minority areas, and alleviate the lack of funds. 4. Maintain cultural heritage, and constantly highlight the ethnic characteristics in the process of urbanization Firstly, we should protect historical and cultural heritage, transmit and carry forward these excellent ethnic cultures, strengthen the protection of natural and cultural heritage in an all-round way, revitalize the level of traditional craftsmanship in an all-round way, and perpetuate the high quality of historical context which embodies ethnic cultural elements. Especially for those representations of ethnic cultural heritage and relics, we should strengthen their protection and incorporate protection measures into the overall economic and social planning so as to ensure its complete protection. Secondly, we should establish a number of towns with ethnic cultural characteristics. By combining the natural and cultural landscapes in ethnic minority areas, we should strive to build one or more pastoral towns with their own ethnic characteristics, strengthen the protection of traditional villages, houses and villages with ethnic characteristics, and promote the transformation of a pattern of homogeneous urban construction to one with humanistic concern. Thirdly, we should strengthen and expand the intangible cultural industry. In the process of future urbanization, we should plan and construct cultural “units” such as folk cultural parks, cultural ecological protection areas, folk arts and crafts zones, etc.; moderately develop intangible cultural heritage resources as tourism commodities, and actively build an intangible cultural industry that integrates protection, inheritance and leisure tourism.
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