文章摘要
徐 芳,吴楚克.国际视域下中国边疆类型与治理模式拓展研究[J].民族学刊,2019,10(2):41-48, 105-109
国际视域下中国边疆类型与治理模式拓展研究
The Expansion of Research on the Types of China’s Frontiers and Governance Models in International Perspectives
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2019.02.04
中文关键词: 边疆类型  边疆治理模式  内部环境  国际关系
英文关键词: frontier type  border governance model  internal environment  international relations
基金项目:
作者单位
徐 芳 北华大学法学院社会学系 
吴楚克 中央民族大学 
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中文摘要:
      为建构内外部沟通的“边疆”,有效推动中国边疆社会治理的转型升级,本文在对中国边疆类型与治理模式进行了理论抽象、拓展与概括。从内外部环境、安全与发展的维度出发,用外部国际关系、接壤国家经济发展水平,内部社会安全程度和经济发展程度作为衡量边疆特性的基本维度。通过4×4矩阵可以划分为十六种类型:边缘封闭型、边缘封锁型、边缘合作型、边缘共享型、风险封闭型、风险封锁型、风险合作型、风险共享型、安定封闭型、安定封锁型、安定合作型、安定共享型、中心封闭型、中心封锁型、中心合作型、中心共享型。在此基础上,总结抽象出六种边疆治理模式:安全合作模式、安全孤立模式、发展合作模式、发展孤立模式、“钟摆”模式和“多赢共享”模式。
英文摘要:
      Under the guidance of the Belt and Road Initiative, China’s frontier research cannot be conducted by ignoring an international perspective, and the international perspective should start from two dimensions, i. e. security and development. This means the relationship between China and its neighboring countries, including both good and bad aspects; and the level of economic development of countries bordering China, including both developed and underdeveloped. Within the context of international relations, on the one hand, the degree of development of the bordering countries determines the commercial opportunities that can be provided to various frontier provinces. On the other hand, China’s relations with neighboring countries have always affected the security and openness of the various frontier provinces. In order to construct a “frontier” for internal and external communication and effectively promote the transformation and upgrading of the social governance of China’s borderland, this paper theoretically abstracts, expands and summarizes the types of China’s frontier and their governance models. Starting from the internal and external environment, and dimensions of security and development, and taking into account external international relations, the level of economic development of the bordering countries, the degree of internal social security and the degree of economic development as the basic dimensions for measuring the characteristics of frontiers, this paper classifies 16 types of frontier using the tool of the 4×4 matrix: closed periphery, blocked periphery, cooperative periphery, shared periphery, closed-risk, blocked-risk, cooperative-risk, shared-risk, closed-stabile, blocked-stabile, cooperative-stabile, shared-stabile, closed-center, blocked-center, cooperative-center, and shared-center types. 1. Closed periphery type. This type of border region has a low degree of development and a low degree of security. It has a poor relationship with the countries bordering the country and the level of economic development of the bordering countries is also relatively low. These areas’ internal natural environment is poor; infrastructure is backward; production factors, capital investment, economic development and human capital are all insufficient; they are lacking in external markets and communication channels with external communication, or are in a closed state. As a result, various internal and external economic factors cannot flow and have cooperation, thereby creating a negative effect on the level of economic development. 2. Blocked periphery type. This type of border region has a low degree of development and a low degree of security. It has a poor relationship with the bordering countries, but the level of economic development of bordering countries is very high. These areas lack various internal development factors, are poor and weak, and are blocked by developed countries. So, they lack external opportunities for economic development. 3. Cooperative periphery type. This type of border region has a low degree of development and a low degree of security. It has good relationships with bordering countries, and the level of economic development of the bordering countries is low. 4. Shared periphery type. This type of border region has a low degree of development and a low degree of security. It has good relations with bordering countries, and the economic development level of the bordering countries is relatively high. 5. Closed-risk type. This type of border region has a high degree of development and a low degree of security. It has poor relationships with bordering countries, and the economic development level of the bordering countries is relatively low. Due to abundant natural resources, such as minerals, oil, natural gas, forests and water resources, resource-based cities or urban agglomerations form in these areas, bringing about an overall higher level of economic development in the region. At the same time, due to serious internal hierarchical divisions, this type is intertwined with ethnic and religious issues. Concerning external factors, the poor relations with neighboring countries have led to tensions in blockades, confrontations, conflicts and even wars. The separatist forces or religious extremists abroad use internal ethnic, religious, and hierarchical conflicts to create terrorist incidents, causing non-traditional security threats. This kind of internal and external insecurity often leads to a dilemma in economic development, turning economic growth into a “flash in the pan”. In order to maintain economic development, it is necessary to properly handle the relationships between the countries and deal with the internal contradictions among the people. 6. Blocked-risk type. This type of border region has a high degree of development and a low degree of security. It has a poor relationship with the bordering countries, and the economic development level of the bordering countries is relatively high. 7. Cooperative-risk type. This type of border region has a high degree of development and a low degree of security. It has good relations with the bordering countries and the economic development level of the bordering countries is relatively low. Security issues produce a fatal constraint on development. 8. Shared-risk type. This type of border region has a high degree of development and a low degree of security. It has a good relationship with the countries bordering the country, and the economic development level of the bordering countries is relatively high. Internal security and stability could affect the quality and effectiveness of cooperation. Even if the relationship between countries is good and the overall economic development of the country is good, the low level of security in the region will create risks for different kinds of cooperation, greatly reduce their effects, and bring about high costs for cooperation. 9. Closed-stabile type. This type of border region has a low degree of development and a high degree of security. It has a poor relationship with bordering countries, and the level of economic development of the bordering countries is relatively low. In such frontier areas, the natural environment has more restrictive conditions and fewer resources, such as ecologically fragile areas, sparsely populated areas, insufficient or missing economic development factors, insufficient state administrative capacity or low effective investment, backward transportation facilities and insufficient infrastructure, all of which lead to a low level of economic development. Due to its key geographical location or strategic position in the inter-state relations, the state’s investment in the social stability is very big. 10. Blocked-stabile type. This type of border region has a low degree of development and a high degree of security. It has a poor relationship with bordering countries, and the level of economic development of the bordering countries is relatively high. 11. Cooperative-stabile type. This type of border region has a low degree of development and a high degree of security. It has good relations with bordering countries, and the level of economic development of the bordering countries is relatively low. 12. Shared-stabile type. This type of border region has a low degree of development and a high degree of security. It has good relations with the bordering countries, and the economic development level of the bordering countries is relatively high. 13. Closed-center type. This type of border region has a high degree of development and a high degree of security. It has a bad relationship with bordering countries, and the level of economic development of the bordering countries is relatively low. 14. Blocked-center type. This type of border region has a high degree of development and a high degree of security. It has bad relations with bordering countries, and the level of economic development of the bordering countries is relatively high. 15. Cooperative-center type. This type of border region has a high degree of development and a high degree of security. It has good relations with the bordering countries. The economic development level of the bordering countries is relatively low. 16. Shared-center type. This type of border region has a high degree of development and a high degree of security. It has a good relationship with the bordering countries, and the economic development level of the bordering countries is relatively high. The sixteen types mentioned above all are distanced from reality. When any reality is compared with any of the types, the reality is always richer and more vivid. The sixteen types are just a tool for us to understand the reality, and help us to view the status, history and changes of China’s frontiers dimensionally, stereoscopically, and historically. The ideal type is the 16th while the other 15 require us to create various conditions, which eventually will enable them to evolve them into the 16th type , namely “the type with four highs”, i. e. high economic growth, high social stability, good (high) relations with the neighboring countries, and high economic growth of the bordering countries. The Belt and Road Initiative and the “Community of Human Destiny” concept can create the values and actions of the “Shared-Centertype” China frontier on a macro level. However, there will be various changes and twisting paths throughout the actual operation. By combining international strategy and diplomatic policy, the model for border governance can be classified into six modes: security-cooperation mode, security- isolation mode, development- cooperation mode, development-isolation mode, “pendulum” mode and “multi-win sharing” mode. 1. Security-cooperation mode. The main body of frontier governance adopts the idea of safety as a priority, maintains social stability in the border areas, develops relations with neighboring countries, seeks international cooperation, and then promotes economic development. This model is suitable for areas with sharp internal contradictions, and low social security and stability. It prioritizes security issues, optimizes a series of social security systems and regional security cooperation strategies, constructs a relatively safe internal and external environment, and seeks development and cooperation on the basis of safety. 2. Security-isolation mode. Due to the inability to reconcile relations with relevant neighboring countries, the frontier governance bodies give up improving relations, and even prepare for war. Internally, it prioritizes safety and maintains social stability in the border areas. In an isolationist mode, the speed of economic development will slow down. It seeks an internal path open to the frontiers, and uses assistance from the center to share capital, resources, talents, technology and markets in order to complete economic development. This model is conductive to promoting the integration of the border areas with the central areas, and strengthening regional cooperation and internal solidarity within the country. 3. Development-cooperation model. This model believes that development is the absolute principle, so it uses “development to solve problems”, strengthens international cooperation, uses all international resources to develop the local economy, continuously improves the living standards of the people, and resolves ethnic and religious contradictions in the process of development. However, due to the complexity of ethnic and religious issues in the frontier society, this model is only applicable to areas with a stable social foundation. 4. Development-isolation mode. This model is suitable for the frontier regions where separatist forces are relatively rampant. However, under the isolationist strategy, the development of the economy requires more government investment, higher governance ability, stronger intra-regional cooperation, as well as the willingness and ability for communication. 5. “Pendulum” mode. This model reflects a realist way of thinking. The ruling body will use internal development, security, and external cooperation and isolation as a means of developing the frontier into the “shared-center type.” When there are major problems with internal security, it will take compulsory measures to control social stability. When the situation is stable, it will adopt an “economic supremacy” attitude and strive to develop the economy. Externally, when neighboring countries endanger national security, it will take a series of measures such as isolation, suppression, and blockade to safeguard national interests and never give in. After the national security crisis has passed, it will also work hard to break the ice and resume cooperation through negotiation and dialogue. 6. “multi-win sharing” mode. This model is generally a long-term national strategy. It refers to the country’s top-level design for a strategic roadmap for border governance, and implements a “walking with four legs” strategy based on the frontier’s social security, economic development, regional cooperation, and international cooperation. The above six models for frontier governance are a theoretical abstraction based on the ideal types of frontiers, and are a general response to the real empirical world. In reality, the choice of governance model will be more diversified, and the considerations will be more limitless and rich, such as international order, national strategies, diplomatic policies, comprehensive strengths, political systems, regional events, natural geographical factors, ethnic and religious cultural factors, economic and social development stages, etc. In order to achieve the goal of building a great, prosperous and democratic China, the state will explore different ways and means of governance in different regions in different historical periods. It is the constant exploration, timely corrective action, and bold actions that promoted the transformation and upgrading of China’s border governance model, and the modernization and internationalization of governance capabilities.
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