文章摘要
格桑卓玛.民主改革以来西藏就业发展历程[J].民族学刊,2019,10(2):1-18, 96-100
民主改革以来西藏就业发展历程
Employment Development in Tibet since Democratic Reform
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2019.02.01
中文关键词: 西藏  民主改革  就业  劳动力市场  大学生就业
英文关键词: democratic reform  Tibet Autonomous Region  employment
基金项目:
作者单位
格桑卓玛 中国藏学研究中心社会经济研究所 
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中文摘要:
      作为民生之本的就业是反映一个地区社会经济发展水平的重要标志。民主改革60年来,西藏人口增长,劳动力数量持续增加,就业规模不断扩大,就业结构日臻优化,劳动力的流动性不断提高。劳动力市场机制从无到有,并逐渐完善,城镇失业率保持低位。大学生就业从“统包统分”到“双向选择、自主择业”,通过多种措施并举和多种渠道并行的就业引导,实现了高比率的大学生就业。通过免费职业技能培训、打造劳务品牌、提高转移就业的组织化程度和优化进城务工环境等措施有效实现了农村富余劳动力向城镇的转移。西藏就业60年的发展历程反映了西藏社会的不断进步,也承载着西藏发展的巨大动力。
英文摘要:
      This article discusses the book Formal and Non formal Dimensions of Education in East Asia — Socialisation and its Link to the Apprenticeship Content (Dimension formelle et non formelle de l’éducation en Asie orientale: Socialisation et rapport au contenu d’apprentissage) by Jean-Marc de Grave, assistant Professor HDR at Aix-Marseille University and Alain Pierrot, Professor of educational sciences at Paris Descartes University (France) that first appeared in 2012 and is published by Les Indes Savantes. This very interesting journey through different approaches to education at different periods in Asian societies presents several field studies and analyses accompanied by two theoretical introductions from the authors, which review the scientific stakes of education. The domain of education is still less explored in anthropology than in other fields, yet, it is essential in helping us understand how Asian societies have managed to adapt to modernity, whether in the past during the colonial period or today. The heart of the approach is the distinction between two trends: so-called “formal education”, that aims principally to achieve a specific result, and which takes place in “decontextualized” modes of transmission, and so-called “non-formal or informal education”, which values contextualized and relational modes of transmission. All the articles mention these two dimensions, including those which do not aim to compare past and present modes of education; the first trend is related to Westernized forms of education, while the second is more traditional. This led me to question whether one can identify any coherences or shared values among the societies studied in the book. As a matter of fact, traditional ways of education all use the relational context, the vision of unity between body and spirit, and respect for masters as their principal means of transmission, while modern educational methods that have been put into practice throughout Asia place more value on autonomy and competition. Employment, as the basis of people’s livelihood, is an important indicator reflecting a region’s level of social and economic development. It also shows the overall development level of the national economy and the total situation of the input direction of social labor resources and employment development in Tibet since the start of democratic reform 60 years ago. It also tracks the progress of Tibet’s economic and social development. After the peaceful liberation of Tibet in 1951, in order to develop Tibet, two important roads, the Qinghai-Tibet Highway and Sichuan-Tibet Highway, were constructed; a number of transportation and electric power enterprises were set up; workers, including local workers, were selected and transferred to those enterprises, and the first batch of industrial workers in Tibet was created. The democratic reform that took place in 1959 completely changed the political and economic system of Tibet. The labor force was liberated from the feudal serfdom system and started to engage in the construction of their hometowns. The employment situation in Tibet was also fundamentally changed. In the 60 years since that time, employment in Tibet has gone through several historical stages. Under the guidance of the planned economy, Tibet’s urban employment adopted a centralized labor allocation system, and rural laborers were relatively fixed in their villages for agricultural, pastoral and forest production. The “reform and opening-up” policy not only promoted the continuous growth of Tibet’s total rate of employment, but also effectively resolved the employment conflicts that accumulated during the period of the system of the planned economy. During this period, due to the adjustment of the Central government’s governance policy on Tibet, the population flowing in and out of Tibet fluctuated greatly, creating some changes in the employment structure. The piloting of a contract labor system and the encouragement of diversified operations increased the flexibility of employment, and expanded the channels of employment. Compared with other inland provinces, the employment reform in Tibet during this period was still in an exploratory stage. In the new century, in the face of the unalleviated contradiction of the total rate of employment and outstanding structural contradictions, Tibet entered a period of comprehensive reform during which time it vigorously developed a non-public economy, implemented preferential policies for employment and reemployment, and developed public welfare positions. Under the grim situation of employment in China in 2010, Tibet adhered to the principle of employment first and giving priority to education. In this new era, Tibet promoted employment through public examinations, employment assistance to Tibet, market employment, and self-employment. Poverty alleviation through the promotion of employment became a key link in Tibet’s targeted, precise poverty alleviation. Therefore, the self-development ability of people in poverty was enhanced through industrial poverty alleviation and employment. It is one of Tibet’s prominent employment problems that people cannot find a proper position due to their displacement and lack of skills. For this reason, the government has strengthened vocational skills training in order to improve the quality of employment. The total rate of employment in Tibet has maintained a sustained growth. In 1965, the total labor force within 17-48 age group in Tibet accounted for 55% of the total population, or 0.75416 million. Currently, the total amount of employed population has reached 2.5636 million, occupying 76.04%. The industrial structure of employment in Tibet also has shown a shift from primary industries to secondary and tertiary industries. During the transition from a planned economy to a market economy, the labor market in Tibet gradually opened up and the mobility of the labor force greatly increased. The employment management system in Tibet also underwent a process of first establishing a system of planned economy, and then, shifted from a planned economy to a market economy system. The labor market in Tibet has gradually opened up, and labor mobility has greatly increased. The original proportion of employment in those units exhibiting strong characteristics of a planned economy or were within the planned economy system, has continued to decrease while the proportion of employment in private, foreign-funded enterprises with a high degree of marketization or informal employment has been on the rise. With the expansion of the scale of Tibetan urban areas, accompanied by an increased concentration of population and resources, the ability of cities and towns to absorb employment has strengthened. With the deepening of the reform of Tibet’s economic system, the urban labor employment system has changed from a planned employment system with passive resettlement by the state to a market-based employment system that stimulates laborers to gradually start their own businesses. The market economy has played a positive role in the allocation of Tibet’s resources, including labor resources. The autonomy of state-owned enterprises has increased, and more urban employment has been created to absorb the numbers of people entering the labor force in the non-public economic sector. The problem of unemployment in the reform of the urban employment system has been given much attention. Enterprises have adopted stable measures. In Tibet where human capital is generally low, college students with higher education and quality are a special employment group. Before the 1980s and 1990s, the number of college students was limited, and the demand for them was high. Therefore, for a long time, the policy for the employment of college students was the policy of the centralized labor allocation system. With the development of education in Tibet, more and more students are attending colleges and universities, and, as a result, the quality of the local labor supply has generally improved. In 2000, 764 students in Tibet graduated from colleges and universities, but by 2017, this number reached 16, 102. The supply and demand of the labor market in Tibet has reached a certain balance, and a phenomenon of oversupply has appeared due to structural differences within the configuration of labor resources. In 2006, the employment reform of Tibetan college graduates was launched, and during the implementation of this policy, the adjustment of the reform policy triggered by the social situation was encountered. Various employment measures were taken simultaneously, and various channels were set up in parallel. The whole society worked together to solve the employment problem of college students. From democratic reform through the completion of socialist transformation, rural labor in Tibet was mostly concentrated in traditional agriculture and animal husbandry. Since the policy of “reform and opening up” was implemented, the employment structure of rural labor in Tibet changed from a single labor employment structure to one that was diversified. The increase in labor productivity in traditional rural industries in Tibet and the booming development of emerging industries are increasingly urgent for labor transfer. The employment ratio of the three kinds of industries has increased, the allocation of the Tibetan labor force between urban and rural areas has been further optimized, and the rural surplus labor force has been continuously transferred. In 2017, Tibet transferred more than 1.1 million surplus rural laborers, and a labor income of 2.8 billion yuan was generated. Employment is the issue related to the people’s livelihoods in Tibetan society which concerns most people. The agricultural laborers from rural areas gradually entered the city through employment transfer, and an integrated system of urban and rural employment has been gradually set up. With the adjustment of the industrial structure and the acceleration of urbanization, the distribution pattern of employment in the primary, secondary, and tertiary industries has changed accordingly. This shift in the structure of the employed population is also an important force driving economic growth. Its profound cultural heritage will make Tibet’s cultural creative industry a potential employment field. Green industries, environmental protection industries, low-carbon economies and a circular economy will also create a large number of jobs in Tibet which will take on the responsibility of green development. In the future, employment in Tibet is not only a requirement for quantity, but also an improvement in quality.
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