文章摘要
罗 曲,高 翔.彝族孝文化文献《赛特阿育》的文本源研究[J].民族学刊,2019,10(1):88-94, 126-128
彝族孝文化文献《赛特阿育》的文本源研究
A Study of the Textual Source of the Yi’s Text on Filial Piety: the Saite Ayu
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2019.01.11
中文关键词: 彝族《赛特阿育》  变文宝卷  文本源  孝文化  《天仙配宝卷》
英文关键词: the Saite Ayu of the Yi  bianwen  baojuan  textual sources
基金项目:
作者单位
罗 曲 西南民族大学 
高 翔 贵州财经大学 
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中文摘要:
      在贵州彝区的毕摩文献里,有一部反映孝文化的文本《赛特阿育》,与流传于汉区的董永行孝相关文献有密切关系。从情节内容看,《赛特阿育》是对董永行孝相关文本的彝文翻译改写,将其与董永变文、宝卷中的相关文本加以比较研究发现,《天仙配宝卷》应是《赛特阿育》的文本源。
英文摘要:
      As a of “repository” of Chinese culture during a specific period, Dunhuang culture has a far-reaching influence, which can also be seen in the traditional culture of the Yi in Guizhou, located in the southwest border region of China. In the Bimo literature of the Guizhou Yi, there is a long poetic text called Saite Ayu which reflects the culture of filial piety. The text was translated into Chinese by Wang Jichao and Zhang Heping, and published by the Guizhou minzu chubanshe in 1995. The Saite Ayu is written in the ancient Yi language using the “five-character poetic” style, and the content is the story of the filial piety practiced by the hero Saite Ayu. The story of Saite Ayu is similar to ones in Chinese literature which describe Dong Yong’s practice of filial piety, and the two seem to have a similar textual source. 1. A Synopsis of Saite Ayu In looking at the content of the translated version of the Saite Ayu, we can divide it into the following elements: 1) the bestowal of a son by Cejuzu (The heavenly god Cejuzu bestowed a son to the couple Saite Dongzhe’an and Fushi Nini, and the son is named as Saite Yushen); 2) Saite Yushen loses his father when he was three years old; 3) Saite Yushen studies under very difficult circumstances (Because the teacher understood Saite Yushen’s difficult situation, he taught him free of charge, and changed his name to Saite Ayu; 4) Saite Ayu loses his mother; 5) Saite Ayu sells himself to bury his mother; 6) A large tree serves as the matchmaker (Saite Ayu married the heavenly goodness Lunmi under the tree); 7) the magical powers of Lunmi (using her super wisdom and with the help her six fairy-sisters, Lunmi dealt with the trouble made by Azhi Ru’e); 8) The couple parts with heartbreak (Lunmi returned to the heavenly palace); 9) Saite Ayu is successful (he succeeded in passing the imperial examinations, returned to his hometown and becomes engaged with Nennian); 10) “partings and reunions” (the Heavenly Goddess Lunmin gave birth to Ayu Dongfu, and asks the couple, Ayu and Nennian, to raise the child); 11) Dongfu misses his mother (Nennian told Dongfu the truth that he had to find Guiguzi to help him to find his mother); 12) Mr.Guiguzi loses his divination tools (Guiguzi told Dongfu how to find his mother, but Lunmi use magic to burn Guiguzi’s divination books, only leaving the Sixty Jiazi [a circle of sixty years]); 13) Luck turns (the emperor bestows Ayu Dongfu and Saite Ayu with high-rank official titles). 2. A comparison between the Saite Ayu and relevant texts of Dong Yong’s practice of filial piety Although the names of the characters in the Saite Ayu are all in the Yi language, the content and plot in the poem are similar to that of the legend of Dong Yong’s practice of filial piety found in Chinese literature. In fact, the Saite Ayu is actually a “cultural translation” of the legend of Dong Yong’s practice of filial piety. From the perspective of translation studies, translation is a kind of transmission of culture, and culture exists or spreads with the help of the carrier. So, as such, the translated work should have its textual source. Through a comparative study of several versions of Dong Yong’s practice of filial piety found in the Han cultural system, this paper believes that the textual source of the Saite Ayu can only be found in the dunhuang dongyong bianwen (Dunhuang Narrative Literature of Dong Yong) and other texts which have a close relationship with it, such as the dongyong baojuan (baojuan is a traditional Chinese literary form of prosimetric text which evolved from folk tales found in the temples of the Tang dynasty). 1) The Saite Ayu and the dunhuang dongyong bianwen If we compare the Saite Ayu of the Yi with the dunhuang dongyong bianwen, it can be noticed that the Saite Ayu contains the basic plot found in the dunhuang dongyong bianwen, but that it also added additional ones, such as praying to the gods for a son; the bestowal of a son by the heavenly god Cejuzu; a green tree playing the role of matchmaker; Ayu achieving success; luck returns; curing the emperor and receiving wealth and honor, etc. The entire plot of the Saite Ayu text expresses more fully those things which meet people’s special psychological expectations. Because of the richer plot, there are more characters in the Saite Ayu than in the dunhuang dongyong bianwen. Although the names of main characters in the Saite Ayu have been changed into Yi through translation, there are still some Chinese elements, such as Ayu Dongfu and Saite Dongzhe’an, etc. The obvious difference between the texts is that we find “dishi” (帝释) and dishigong (帝释宫) in the dunhuang dongying bianwen, which are obvious traces of Buddhist and Taoist culture, whereas in the Saite Ayu, there is only the heavenly palace, and Cejuzu, who is an equivalent to yuhuang or the emperor of heaven. In addition, the diviner who directed Dong Yong’s son to find his mother was named Sun Bin in the dunhuang dongying bianwen, whereas Guiguzi was the person who played the role of the diviner in the Yi’s Saite Ayu. 2) The Saite Ayu and the dongyong xingxiao baojuan (Baojuan of Dong Yong’s Practice of Filial Piety) As a kind of cultural translation, the Saite Ayu contains the main elements of the dongyong bianwen, but the whole plot and characters are richer than those in the dongyong bianwen. Therefore, the dunhuang dongyong bianwen is probably not the textual source for the Saite Ayu, or, at least, not the direct source. It might be based on “another text” of Dong Yonghang’s practice of filial piety which developed from the bianwen, and this “other text” could be the baojuan. If seen from the amount of information, the content of the same story in the baojuan is richer than in the bianwen. Therefore, the textual source of the Saite Ayu should be baojuan. Moreover, it should be a translation of the relevant baojuan texts which have a close relationship with Dunhuang literature. Compared with the bianwen, it seems that the plot and elements found in the tianxianpei baojuan (The Precious Scroll about the Marriage of a Fairy Princess) in the first volume of the jinzhengye minjian baojuan (The Jinzhangye Folk Treasure Scroll) and the Saite Ayu are much more r similar. The part of the Saite Ayu where “Cejuzu bestowed a son”, and the “praying to the deities for a child” found in tianxianpei baojuan indicate the same cultural beliefs. The only difference between them is that in the former, the heavenly god bestowed a son, and in the latter, virtuous behavior gets virtue results. There is no explanation for the death of the father of Saite Ayu. However, in the text of tianxianpei baojuan, it is explained that Dong Yong’s father died due to the destruction of all his family property by fire. Yet, both use a major shift from extreme wealth to poverty to highlight the main character’s experience. Compared with the plot of Saite Ayu’s “difficult situation in obtaining an education” and “Mother Feng Sending her Son for Education” in the tianxiepei baojuan, the latter include two elements, i.e. the mother sending the son for education, and the mother dying suddenly due to extreme excitement after learning that the son, Dong Yong, received the title of Xiucai (one who passed the imperial examination at the county level). However, in the Saite Ayu, it only says that “A child prodigy lost the mother”. The story line “sold oneself to bury the mother” in the Saite Ayu and “Dong Yong sold himself to bury his mother” in the tianxianpei baojuan is the same except that the price is different. The price in the tianxianpei baojun is 371 liang of silver, while the price in the Saite Ayu is 272 liang of silver. The content of “the large tree serves as the matchmaker” in the Saite Ayu, and “Dong Yong and the seventh fairy got married” in the tianxianpei baojuan is the same. The content of “Lunmi’s magical power” in the Saite Ayu and “the seventh fairy won with her superhuman wisdom” is the same. If we compare the story line of “the couple’s heartbreaking separation” found in the Saite Ayu, with “the Dong Yong couple left the Youda Family after paying back the debt” and “their heartbreaking separation” found in the tianxiapei baojuan, there is only one additional element found in the tianxiepei baojuan, namely, the couple presents shoes of longevity and 10 pieces of silver to the teacher in order to show their respect and gratitude. The element of “Ayu receiving success” in the Saite Ayu and “Dong Yong passed the imperial examination and married a beautiful wife” in the tianxianpei baojuan is the same. The content of “the Partings and Reunions” in the Saite Ayu and “Dong Yong happily gets a son” in the tianxianpei baojun is similar. The plot of “Ayu misses his mother”, “Guiguzi lost the divination tools” in the Saite Ayu and “Dong Zhongshu searches for his mother” is similar. The plot of “Luck has returned” in the Saite Ayu is the same as the plot of “Dong Zhongshu eliminates evil and becomes rich” in the tianxiepei baojuan. 3. The Textual Source of the Saite Ayu It can be seen from the above descriptions that the plots of the Saite Ayu found in the literature of the Bimo of the Yi not only contain the basic storylines similar to those in the dongyong bianwen, but that the Saite Ayu contains more plot elements and characters than found in the dongyong bianwen. Moreover, it is certain that the additional content that goes beyond the dongyong bianwen cannot be a fiction created by the Bimo of the Yi. Therefore, the Saite Ayu cannot be a translation of the dongyong bianwen. If we compare the Saite Ayu with the tianxiepei baojuan, only the latter contains the additional content of “Dong Yong presenting a gift to show his gratitude and respect to the teacher”. Therefore, it is reasonable to believe that the Saite Ayu story found in the Bimo scriptures is a translation by the Bimo, literati in the Yi’s history, of the tianxiepei baojuan in the “Dunhuang folk literature branch”. The dongyong ji (Story of Dong Yong) recorded in Bimo literature of the Yunnan Yi can also provide evidence for this assertation. It records storylines, such as Dong Yong’s visiting his teacher to show his gratitude; holding banquets for his fellow villagers; burning incense in the temple to thank the gods; Dong Yong’s family was transported to heaven by the seven fairies and Han Xiangzi using the imperial edict of the Heavenly God Cegengzi (Cegengqi or Cejuzu in the Yi area of Guizhou, or Enti guzi in the Yi area of Sichuan), and were granted the status of celestial beings; and encouraging people learn filial piety from Dong Yong. At present, due to the limitation of excavated materials, it is not clear when and where the Bimo of the Yi in Guizhou and Yunnan translated the tianxianpei baojuan, and whether or not there were mutual exchanges between the Bimo from the different areas when they were translating the tianxianpei baojuan. This is what we need to research in the future.
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