文章摘要
王 菊.由史俗到经述:彝族毕摩经籍中的“狸猫换太子”故事[J].民族学刊,2019,10(1):81-87, 123-125
由史俗到经述:彝族毕摩经籍中的“狸猫换太子”故事
From Historical Romance to the Classics: The Story of The Wild Cat Exchanged for the Crown Prince in the Bimo Manuscripts of the Yi
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2019.01.10
中文关键词: “狸猫换太子”  “仁宗的故事”  彝族毕摩经籍  故事类型  过渡仪式
英文关键词: the Wild Cat Exchange for the Crown Prince  The Story of Renzong  the Yi’s Bimo manuscripts  story type  the rites of passage
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作者单位
王 菊 西南民族大学彝学学院 
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中文摘要:
      彝族毕摩经籍中出现了关于宋仁宗的“狸猫换太子”故事,在历史记载、说书演义、叙事模式、社会语境、仪式过渡的共同作用下,由毕摩撰写完成了“仁宗的故事”。但是,该故事又由自己的方式来讲述,其深层次结构与很多故事类型和原型仪式有相似之处。
英文摘要:
      As a multi-ethnic country, there are a lot of expressions of the “other” and reconstructions of ethnic culture in China during the long process of its history. The story of the Wild Cat Exchanged for the Crown Prince (limao huan taizi) is an extremely popular story in the Central Plains, which originated from the story of the Song Emperor Renzong’s reunion with his biological mother, and it has been popular among the people since the Song dynasty. After Shi Yukun, a storyteller in the Qing dynasty, compiled the plot of the story into sanxia wuyi (Three Chivalrous Men and Five Righteous Men), it has been especially favored by the novelists and Quyi artists, and it has been continuously revised and disseminated by them. As it happens, the “Renzong’s Story” found in Bimo’s manuscripts of the Yi in Yunnan is one of its variants. However, it formed its own unique style in the process of being modified and re-written by the Bimo of the Yi. The story of the Wild Cat Exchanged for the Crown Prince discussed in this article refers to The Story of Renzong, one of the two figures described in The Yi’s Origin Myth (yizu wuyuan shenhua) found in the Annotations of the Bimo Manuscripts of the Yi (vol.47, yizu bimo jingdian yizhu) compiled by the People’s Government of Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province. Because its main characters and plot are basically the same as the first chapter of sanxia wuyi titled as “A conspiracy was set up to exchange the crown prince; a chivalrous person took the royal mother’s place to die” — there are only a few small differences between the two versions. Shi Yukun’s Sanxia Wuyi mainly tells the story of Bao Zheng’s miraculous birth, and Bao Zheng’s astute judgment in a law cases, where Bao Zheng’ impartiality in settling royal cases is praised in the story of Wild Cat Exchange for Crown Prince. Less attention is paid to the experience of the Song Emperor Renzong. However, Renzong becomes the main character in the The Story of Renzong recorded in the Yi Bimo’s manuscripts. The interesting thing to ask is why was this story recorded in the Bimo scriptures of the Yi who live in a far southwest region? This story was very wide spread due to its legendary nature, however, in the process of its dissemination, it most likely also went through many transformations based on the “recreations” of different authors. Originally, the theme of sanxia wuyi was “public cases + Chivalrous Men”, in order to rectify society, and promote social justice. However, the themes of “public cases” and” chivalry” never appeared in the traditional literature of the Yi. Before Liberation, the disputes in Yi areas were basically mediated by the Degu found in the folk tradition. Moreover, instead of having a classification of “chivalrous men”, there is only a classification of “warriors” in the Yi traditional society. So, when the story appeared in the Yi area, it could only be combined with the important and eternal theme of “encouraging kindness” found in Yi traditional society, and in this way it was adapted to the cultural environment of the Yi. Therefore, although the main plot of The Story of Renzong in the Yi Bimo’s manuscripts and the Wild Cat Exchange for Crown Prince found in the sanxia wuyi is basically the same, the themes they advocated are different—this is the result of the variation of time and place, as well as the result of borrowing from and mutually integrating multi-ethnic literature. Although The Story of Renzong in the Yi Bimo’s manuscripts is recorded in the Yi written language, and the plot of the birth and life experiences of Renzong is somewhat magical, it reflects a heroic image of an emperor who bravely fights against fate. Moreover, its narrative theme is similar to that of other folk tales and myths, among which the “abandoned baby” figures prominently among folk tales. This theme can also be found in various literary works of ancient Greece or among other ethnic groups in China. The Story of Renzong in the Yi language is rewritten consciously from either oral or written literature of the Han. In the process of the Bimo’s rewriting a story from Chinese literature, the main characters, such as Renzong and Bao Zheng, are taken from Han literature, but a variety of the experiences and sufferings of Renzong after his birth derive from the imagination of the Bimo. Although the choice of objects and imagination in the story are recreations of the Yi Bimo, it more or less corresponds to the culture tradition of the Central Plains. And, if we explain the story using the theory of “the rites of passage”, as proposed by French scholar Arnold Van Renep, Renzong’s experience from being abandoned to returning to the imperial palace experiences three stages: separation, marginalization and convergence. It is these three stages that transformed Renzong, a common person, into something sacred, and finally into the emperor. During the process of reconstructing The Story of Renzong in the Yi’s Bimo manuscripts, the tale was not only influenced by the Chinese texts (no matter whether they were oral texts, storyteller’s texts, or written texts), but it was also influenced by the social-historical-cultural context of the Yi. Thus, it has been rewritten and reconstructed in many aspects, including its style, theme, characters, plot and so on, and became a narrative incorporating social ethics and aesthetic sense of the Yi. It is worth mentioning that although the whole story was written by Bimo of the Yi, they did not add much exaggeration of Bimo’s belief in ghosts. From the developmental history of Bimo of the Yi, it could be noted that because of the implementation of the policy of “gaitu guiliu” (replacement of tusi or native officials with royally appointed officials) in the Yi areas during the Ming and Qing dynasties, the Bimo had gradually separated religion from politics. “With the abolition of the tusi system, the Bimos lost their role in the political sphere, and flowed into the realm of folk tradition. They mainly engaged in religious rites, medical treatment, traditional etiquette, writing books and commentaries, translating Chinese classics, teaching and disseminating the Yi scriptures or standardizing the classics according to their functional requirements, they did not, however, separate themselves from productive labor” (Yang Fuwang and Li Desheng, 2011, p.125). Therefore, to some extent, with the change of the Bimo’s social status and cultural functions in the Yi area, the Bimo texts were no longer purely about religious beliefs, but became fused more with the functions of socio-cultural communication and documentation. In general, although this story was discovered, sorted and translated from the Bimo scriptures, the story is relatively complete, and has a distinct literary imagination and expression. So, it should be listed within the classification of the Bimo scripture-literature of the Yi. At the same time, it is also a result of mutual learning and communication within multi-ethnic literature, and reflects a common element within the development of multi-ethnic literature. There is a definite variation between the Wild Cat Exchanged for the Crown Prince in found in the sanxia wuyi and the Yi’s Story of Renzong. “The variation of the story is reflected not only in the variation of the plot, relevant time, place, characters, props, customs, etc., but also in the variation of language, the way of expression, the degree of details and even ethnic characteristics and artistic style. Generally speaking, the longer the time, and the greater the geographical and ethnic span of circulation, the more obvious the variations of the story will be.” (Qi Lianxiu, 2011, p.3) The ethnic literature in China is just such a process, and is the result of communication, influence and variation.
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