文章摘要
张先清.文本、族群、叙事:作为一种民族志的《平闽十八洞》[J].民族学刊,2019,10(1):65-71, 117-120
文本、族群、叙事:作为一种民族志的《平闽十八洞》
Text, Ethnicity and Narratives: The pingmin shibadong, as a Kind of Ethnography
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2019.01.08
中文关键词: 《平闽十八洞》  东南人类学  李亦园
英文关键词: the pingmin shibadong  anthropology of southeast  Li Yiyuan
基金项目:
作者单位
张先清 厦门大学人类学与民族学系 
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中文摘要:
      作为广泛流行于闽台地区及东南亚闽籍华人社会的一部章回体小说,《平闽十八洞》曾经引起包括林语堂、叶国庆、李亦园等文史学家和人类学家的集体关注和研究,其背后呈现的是从“古史辨”学派到人类学视角的学术史脉络。《平闽十八洞》这类族群叙事文学,其背后蕴含的是代表中原移民的“汉”与代表越、畲等“非汉”之东南区域原来存在的原住族群历史上竞争与融合的过程,是理解历史上东南地区族群互动关系的重要民族志文本。对这类文本的深度考察,有助于推进东南民族史的研究。
英文摘要:
      The pingmin shibadong (Pacifying the 18 Caves of Fujian) is a novel written in the zhang-hui style (a type of traditional Chinese novel with captions for each chapter) popular since the Qing Dynasty in Fujian, Taiwan and among Southeast Asian Fujian-Chinese society. The novel pretends to be the story of Yang Wenguang’s march to Fujian in the Song dynasty, but it is actually the history of Chen Yuanguang’s pacifying the “chaotic barbarians” (ethnic minorities) in Fujian during the Tang dynasty. This novel is an important ethnographic text for understanding the interaction between ethnic groups in southeastern China. Therefore, since the Republican Period, many scholars have paid attention to this aspect, and among them, Lin Yutang, Ye Guoqing and Li Yiyuan are typical representatives. If the research of Lin Yutang and Ye Guoqing on the pingmin shiba dong was carried out within the academic context of the school of “critical analysis of ancient history” (gushi bian) in the 1920s and 1930s, then Li Yiyuan was undoubtedly the first person who studied the novel from the perspective of anthropology. Based on sorting out the academic history of the pingmin shiba dong, this paper analyzes the academic contribution of Li Yiyuan’s research on the pingmin shiba dong in the field of “the anthropology of southeastern China”. On this basis, this paper discusses the important ethnographic data value of the pingmin shiba dong in promoting the related issues of southeast anthropology. 1. A “legendary” journey: starting from “a critical analysis of ancient history” In the academic history of modern China, the school of critical analysis of ancient history that rose in the 1920s was of great significance in determining the academic turn of Chinese humanities and social sciences. This academic heritage is also of great significance for the academic research in the southeastern region of China. It can be said that it was from this moment that the “southeast research” in the academic history of China truly entered a modern period. In the autumn of 1926, Gu Jiegang, who was famous in academic circles because he proposed that ancient Chinese history was “formed in an accumulative way”, and published a series of works related to the “critical analysis of ancient history”, came to Xiamen from Beijing to serve as a professor at the Academy of Traditional Chinese Culture of Xiamen University. The pingmin shibadong, a very popular oral literature in Fujian at that time, was soon brought into the perspective of the school of “critical analysis on ancient history” which had moved south from Beijing. In 1927, Lin Yutang published an article titled Monuments Recorded in “the pingmin shibadong” in the second issue of Xiamen University Weekly. The article was later published in the 34th issue of Folklore in 1928.Lin Yutang’s contribution to this essay was to put the legend of the pingmin shibadong into the context of modern academic study for the first time. It can be said that Lin started the “critical analysis of ancient history” school’s use legends to study the ancient history of Fujian, and put forward several topics worthy of further study. Unfortunately, Lin Yutang’s research on the pingmin shibadong came to an abrupt end after the dissolution of the Academy of Tranditional Chinese Culture of Xiamen University. After that, his student Ye Guoqing did systematic research on the pingmin shibadong. In 1931, he completed his postgraduate thesis, “Studies on the pingmin shibadong”, at Yenching University. In 1935, Ye’s thesis was published in the Journal of Xiamen University. The objective of Ye Guoqing’s research was to discuss the source of the pingmin shibadong story from the perspective of interaction between literature and history. It is the most in-depth study of the pingmin shibadong from the perspective of legend and history. Ye’s theory and methodology followed the theory of history “as a process of the accumulation of layers” advocated by his teacher Gu Jiegang. As such, they were almost the same in their specific path of research, focusing on the relationship between legends and historical facts, and analyzing the evolution of legends. This is also how Lin Yutang first began to study the pingmin shibadong. It can be said that in going from Lin Yutang to Ye Guoqing, we can see that their studies on the pingmin shibadong are inseparable from the tradition of the school of critical analysis of ancient history in modern academic history. From the perspective of academic history, one prominent influence of this school on the study of the pingmin shibadong was to bring the folk tales originally disseminated in Fujian into a modern academic perspective, and regard them as important materials for the discussion of legends and historical facts, texts and narratives, immigrant groups, the development of local history, and other issues. However, the issue of national history, as the core of the pingmin shibadong, was not further explored, and this change of the objective of this research was only realized after the intervention of the anthropologist Li Yiyuan. 2. Li Yiyuan and Ethnological Studies of the pingmin shibadong If the school of critical analysis of ancient history initiated an interaction between a literary and historical perspective for the study of the pingmin shibadong, and incorporated legends into the field of ancient history for investigation, then, it is Li Yiyuan, an anthropologist from southern Fujian province, who brought the pingmin shibadong into the world of anthropology more than half a century later. In 1994, Li Yiyuan published An Ethnological Study on the Zhang-hui Novel the “pingmin shibadong” in the 76th issue of the Journal of Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica, and, for the first time, he explicitly discussed ethnic interaction in southeast China from the perspective of anthropology. Later, this article was included in his collection of writings, which offers the most in-depth study of the relationship between the pingmin shibadong and the history of southeast ethnicity from the perspective of anthropology. As an anthropologist, Li Yiyuan was keenly aware that the pingmin shibadong contains abundant ethnological materials about southeast China. This is another research topic that he thinks can be rediscovered, in addition to the legends and historical facts about which Lin Yutang, Ye Guoqing and other scholars from the school of “critical analysis of ancient history” were concerned. In terms of research content, compared with the research of Lin Yutang and Ye Guoqing, Li Yiyuan’s contribution is mainly reflected in two aspects. First, from the perspective of an anthropologist, he perceived the ethnic historical data in the romance of the pingmin shibadong, and further confirmed that the “fan” (or番), which appeared in the book as the opposite of “Song” (or宋), is the contemporary She (or畲)ethnic group. The She is an ethnic minority who are denseley concentrated in the southeastern region. They are closely intertwined with the historical development of Fujian, and, are also closely linked with the origin of the “Yue” people (or越), an ancient ethnic group in the southeast. Secondly, another important contribution of Li Yiyuan’s article is to analyze the data about totems in the pingmin shibadong from the perspective of totemic theory and the evolution of the totemic system of the early southeast ethnic groups reflected in the text for the first time. Like many popular literary texts since the Ming and Qing dynasties, the pingmin shibadong contains a lot of information about the relationships between humans and animals. The book especially mentions that the people from different “caves” usually have a specific relationship with animals. Li Yiyuan believes that the presence of these animals in the text is not the random fabrication of the composers of oral literature, but that they have a profound ethnic cultural significance. 3. “The Perilous Frontier”: the pingmin shibadong and the narrative culture in the anthropology of the southeastern frontier In the pingmin shibadong, the author of the novel used the “mouths” of the king and ministers of the Song dynasty to say that Fujian was “very strange”. This conveys the impressions that the people, i.e. the orthodox people in the Central Plains during the Song dynasty, had of the culture of the fan (番or ethnic minorities) in southern Fujian, who were rebellious and capricious. This impression was based on their sense of cultural superiority. Although this is only a novel, unofficial historian’s metaphor, it, from one side, reflects that southeastern Fujian was a “Perilous Frontier” similar to that described by Thomas J. Barfield with regard to the nature of the China’s border world before mediaeval times. Because the dynasties of the Central Plains took agricultural civilization as their core in history, they regarded the nomads in the frontier areas as “barbarians” who threatened civilization in the face of world of the grassland nomads. The images they had of the nomads were both dismissively strange, yet full of power and aggressiveness (Barfield, 1989). There are similarities with the descriptions of the southeastern frontier region found in the pingmin shibadong and the above descriptions of the grasslands nomadic world. These non-Han ethnic groups, under the command of a “king” with a charismatic personality, mainly lived in “cave mansions”, practiced shifting cultivation, wore different costumes and often had different physical characteristics. Li Yiyuan noticed the peculiar image of “black face and red beard” prevalent among the “Fan generals” depicted in the book, and pointed out the relationship between this kind of body “metaphor” and the cultural boundaries and distinctions between the “Han” and “Fan”. (Li, 2002). Similarly, there were many strange or miraculous people in the “South Fujian Kingdom”, who were skilled in various kinds of magical arts, which often slowed down the process of conquest by the Song army. These are the borderland landscapes deliberately presented in the pingmin shibadong, which differ from the Central Plains. Obviously, the history at the “margins” preserved in the pingmin shibadong is of unique intrinsic value for objectively understanding the societies and cultures of the ethnic groups in the southeastern frontier region in history. The southeastern region has an important position in the history of the development of Chinese anthropology. For example, some core issues of anthropological research on Han society, such as clan organization, folk religion, migration flow and transnational networks, etc., are all closely related to ethnographic case studies in this region. Similarly, the southeastern region also has an indispensable role in the discussion of the concept of “diversity within unity” of the Chinese nation state. This is a key issue for understanding the origins of Chinese civilization and the origins of southern ethnicities. Oral narrative texts, such as the pingmin shibadong, are undoubtedly a folk material that has not been widely known when discussing the frontier issues of southeast anthropology. 4. Conclusion Perhaps few other traditional Fujian zhang-hui novels have attracted the collective attention of three generations of writers, historians and anthropologists like Lin Yutang, Ye Guoqing and Li Yiyuan. This novel also happens to embody the unique charm of the legendary text of the pingmin shibadong, which can provide us with an alternative case study for the historical construction of the border areas of China. For a long time, the history of the southeastern region has been written as a “pioneering” model of colonization of the south by immigrants from the Central Plains. Within the whole of Chinese history, compared with long term cultural interaction between the northern nomadic world and the dynastic regimes of the Central Plains, the history of this region not only lacked a sense of existence, but also appeared dull and inanimate. In the process of large-scale development after the Tang and Song dynasties, the history of the southeastern ethnic groups was soon integrated into the historical stage of the linear development of dynastic history, and became more and more ordinary. Because of the folk text such as the pingmin shibadong, we can see again the diversity of the people in the southeast within the historical construction of the past. In this sense, with the introduction of Li Yiyuan’s anthropological perspective into the study of the pingmin shibadong, we can see that the research process of this legendary text has been going on for nearly a century, and that it still needs to continue.
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