文章摘要
罗 莉.雅安藏茶产业的变迁发展[J].民族学刊,2019,10(1):22-30, 102-104
雅安藏茶产业的变迁发展
The Changes and Development of the Ya’an Tibetan Tea Industry
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2019.01.03
中文关键词: 雅安藏茶  藏茶产业  变迁发展
英文关键词: Ya’an Tibetan tea  Tibetan tea industry  change and development
基金项目:
作者单位
罗 莉 中央民族大学 
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中文摘要:
      雅安藏茶特指由四川雅安出产并主要供生活在青藏高原上的藏族等少数民族的生活饮品。自古以来,藏族人民“宁可食无粮,不可食无茶”,茶也是藏族人民的生命茶,藏茶成为藏汉民族团结的纽带。雅安藏茶即南路边茶是中国边销茶的一种,从唐朝时起至今已有一千多年的历史,经历过兴起、繁荣、衰落、重生与再繁荣。特别是新中国成立后,雅安藏茶产业在我国社会主义经济体制的建立与不断改革中完善成长。随着现代市场经济的发展,雅安新型藏茶产业及其相关产业得到不断发展,呈现出勃勃生机。
英文摘要:
      Since ancient times, Ya’an has been one of the important tea sources in China. The earliest record of the domestication and cultivation of wild tea came from Mount Mengding in Ya’an, circa the Western Han Dynasty. Thus, Mengshan became the earliest place for cultivating tea in written records. Mengshan is also recognized as the birthplace of world tea civilization and the origin of tea culture. Ya’an Tibetan Tea refers to fermented black tea which is made from aged tea leaves and red moss harvested in the mountains 1000 meters above sea level and above by a special technology. Historically, it is also called “Frontier Tea from the Southern Route”. Ya’an Tibetan Tea is named for “the frontier tea” produced in Ya’an City, Sichuan Province. It is a kind of tea that is specially provided for the survival needs of the Tibetans in Tibet and surrounding Tibetan areas. The tea has the unique qualities of being “red, strong, aged and mellow”, and contains more than 500 trace elements which are beneficial to human health. It is also called “life tea” by Tibetan people. Ya’an tea is good because of its natural and geographical conditions. Located at 30 degrees latitude north, the climate is warm and humid, with an annual rainfall of 290 days. There is high air humidity, and thick surface soil with a sponge texture, and rich nutrients. The conditions are highly suitable for the growth of tea trees. The history of selling tea as a frontier product probably dates back to the Northern and Southern Dynasties at the earliest. At that time, society was turbulent and chaotic. The ethnic minorities in the north were politically self-reliant. They copied tea drinking from the Han, which laid the foundation for the formation of frontier tea. After the unification of China during the Sui and Tang Dynasties and when the power of the Central Plains was strong, the ethnic minorities in the border areas submitted to their rule. Tea was first introduced into the ethnic minority areas by the Central Plains dynasties as a gift as part of the policy of control through conciliation. The custom of tea drinking gradually spread widely among the ethnic minorities in the border areas, and the amount of tea sold to the border areas increased. Tibetan people like the brick tea produced in Ya’an. For thousands of years, this became a historical inevitability of the Tibetan’s choice. This choice also became the contribution of the Han and Tibetans to Chinese tea culture. First, Ya’an is located at the gateway to and along the main transportation road of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. It is also the nearest place of tea production to the Tibetan area. Since ancient times, Ya’an has been the most important base for tea production and distribution center in Tibetan areas of China. 80-90% of the tea produced in Ya’an mainly supplies Tibet, Ganzi and other places, and historically it undertakes the task of supplying tea to Tibet. Ya’an tea also determines the nature of Frontier Tea in history. Because Ya’an is located in the southwestern frontier, the frontier tea is the “Frontier Tea of Southern Route”. The second is the tea-making technology. Ya’an Tibetan tea is loved by the Tibetan people and has a strong relationship with tea selection and production technology. The production of tea sold in the frontier is quite different from that of tea sold domestically. Generally speaking, crude tea is used as the raw material. That is to say, after the fine tea is collected, the tea is harvested again after the summer, and it contains a small amount of tender branches (called tea stalks). Ya’an Tibetan Tea is characterized by its black tea production process. The production techniques of “Frontier Tea of the Southern Route” were listed on the national intangible cultural heritage list in 2008. It is listed for the thousands of years of efforts of the ancient working people and embodies the crystallization of their wisdom and wisdom. The technology is also the best embodiment of the true knowledge of the ancient working people in practice. “Ruling the border with tea” and the tea-horse exchange activities promoted by it are a special political product in the history of China. The imperial court of the Central Plans realized the control and domination of ethnic minorities in the border areas, and restricted Ya’an tea from developing more widely. However, the horse and tea trade was also objectively used to promote national unity, promote cultural exchange between the Han and the Tibetans and promote regional economic development. The Ya’an Tibetan tea industry refers to the general kind of tea that has been produced in the Ya’an area since the Tang Dynasty, and which specially meets the needs of Tibetan people in Tibet, Ganzi, Sichuan and other places. During the Tang and Song Dynasties, the tea produced in Yazhou was continuously transported to lands of the Tubo Kingdom through the southwestern border, forming the initial scope of the trade of the “Frontier Tea of Southern Route”. Since the Yuan Dynasty, a large number of Shanxi merchants, relying on the political support of the Yuan Dynasty, went deep into the Ya’an and Kang area to trade. With the prosperity of Ya’an Frontier Tea industry, a large number of wealthy merchants from Shanxi Province went to Sichuan, and began to enter the Ya’an Frontier Tea trade. The most famous merchant was from the Yixing Tea House in Shanxi Province, which was established in the Jiajing period of the Ming Dynasty. Until Liberation, it has been in operation for more than 400 years. Tea was the largest commodity introduced into Tibet from the inland in ancient times. According to textual research, from the Tang to the Qing Dynasty, all tea sold in the markets of Tibet, Khampa and Yushu was the Frontier Tea produced in the Ya’an area. Because of the special role of tea in Tibetan people’s lives, it is quite common that all Tibetan businessmen trade in tea. In short, from the Ming Dynasty to the 1950s, the Ya’an Tibetan tea industry was no longer simply a production of agricultural products, but it formed an economic industrial chain, which included the rural production of the raw material, processing of the finished product (by tea firms, tea shops , etc.) in urban areas, logistics and transportation (livestock vehicles, mule and horse caravans, human bearers, water transport, etc.), commodity trade (Guozhuang, Tibetan and Han merchants), and consumption and its related industries (iron industry, bamboo industry, wood industry, paper industry, textile industry, etc.). The Ya’an Tibetan tea industry developed continuously for thousands of years, and it became an important feature supporting “ruling the frontier by tea” and the Tea-Horse exchange in the history of China, and promoting the health of ethnic minorities in the border areas. It also becomes an important basis for the development of modern Frontier Tea industry and the new Tibetan tea industry of China. From the end of Qing Dynasty to the Republican Era, with the invasion of Tibet by British imperialists, and Tibet’s becoming a semi-colonial and semi-feudal area, the Ya’an Tibetan tea industry entered a low point. As the British imperialists flooded Tibet with Indian tea, the Ya’an Tibetan tea industry was seriously damaged to the point it finally deteriorated. This situation lasted until the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949. Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the Communist Party of China and the government have attached great importance to the production and supply of the frontier sold tea, as a means of guaranteeing the needs of ethnic minority peoples’ daily necessities in Tibet, Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Ningxia, Yunnan and other provinces and autonomous regions. The party and government regarded “guaranteeing frontier sold tea” as an important policy of the National Tea industry. Ya’an is still an important base for the production of Frontier tea in China, which is responsible for the supply of Frontier tea in Tibet and Sichuan. The first step was to establish state-owned tea factories to form large-scale production of Tibetan tea. The second was to support tea farmers, and improve the tea planting technology. The third was to implement unified management of the Tibetan tea industry under the planned economic system. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the Ya’an Tibetan tea industry, with the vigorous support of the state, came back to life and gained a new lease on life. The industry realized large-scale and mechanized production which differed from the original decentralized development. This not only restored and developed the traditional tea-making techniques, but also guaranteed the life of the tea of the ethnic minorities in the border areas. However, the planned economic system also led to the problems such as unclear property rights, inflexible management, backward management concepts and low economic benefits in Ya’an Tibetan tea state-owned enterprises. After the policy of “reform and opening up”, the Ya’an Tibetan tea industry entered a new stage of development. With the development of the socialist market economy, the state has begun to gradually liberalize the management of Frontier Market Tea. The structure of a single state-owned enterprise has been gradually dismantled. Some small-scale Tibetan tea enterprises have emerged. The output and quality of Frontier Market Tea have been rapidly improved, which not only guarantees the steady supply of Frontier Market Tea in Tibetan areas, but also ensures the emergence of a new type of Tibetan tea production. The brand value of Ya’an Tibetan tea has been increasing day by day. Firstly, fixed-point enterprises and non-fixed-point enterprises develop side by side. Secondly, under the condition of the market economy, Ya’an Tibetan tea enterprises have adopted the model of “company + base + peasant household” for better development. In addition, Tibetan tea culture and industries have realized an integrated development. After more than 1300 years of transmission and development, Ya’an Tibetan Tea has not only served as a frontier tea to meet the needs of the ethnic minority peoples in the frontier areas, but it has also become a public brand of Ya’an City through the integration of industry and culture under the conditions of socialist market economy. This, in turn, is conducive to the development of China’s national industry. It is also a model for the transmission and development of intangible cultural heritage in China.
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