文章摘要
束锡红,聂 君.汉藏民族和谐关系与社会稳定——基于青海省海北州海晏县的实证研究[J].民族学刊,2019,10(1):12-21, 99-101
汉藏民族和谐关系与社会稳定——基于青海省海北州海晏县的实证研究
Han-Tibetan Harmonious Ethnic Relations and Social Stability — An Empirical Study of Haiyan County, Haibei Prefecture, Qinghai Province
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2019.01.02
中文关键词: 海晏县  汉藏民族关系  社会稳定
英文关键词: Haiyan County  Han-Tibetan ethnic relations  social stability
基金项目:
作者单位
束锡红 北方民族大学社会学与民族学研究所 
聂 君 北方民族大学社会学与民族学研究所 
摘要点击次数: 460
全文下载次数: 467
中文摘要:
      本文在分析青海省海北州海晏县汉藏民族关系现状的基础上,总结了汉藏民族关系发展的特点:民族团结源远流长、经济发展有利于汉藏和谐民族关系的形成、汉藏民族关系是“汉-藏-蒙-回-土”多元格局中的核心、藏传佛教在汉藏民族关系的发展中有一定的影响力,指出影响汉藏民族关系和谐发展的问题:民众经济纠纷时有发生、贫困问题依然突出,并提出相应的对策建议:加强民族间交往交流交融维护民族关系和谐发展、实施精准脱贫、稳定脱贫推动民族关系和谐发展、依法治理保障汉藏群众根本利益,以期进一步推动海晏县创建全国民族团结进步示范县的进程,促进社会和谐稳定发展。
英文摘要:
      Haiyan County, Haibei Prefecture, Qinghai Province is a multi-ethnic area. In recent years, the county government has been active in creating a demonstration county of national unity and progress, and making great efforts to make a significant change from being a “small-population” county to a “national unity and progress” county. Through a series of measures, county officials have promoted the county as one fostering communication, exchange and integration among local ethnic peoples. With the guidance of the CPC’s policy on ethnic relations, local ethnic relations are in an overall harmonious state. However, at the same time, as the result of the influence of a complex domestic and international environment, Han-Tibetan ethnic relations in Haiyan County are facing some new situations, ones which have profoundly affected the construction of harmonious ethnic relations and the development of social stability. Based on sample survey data on Han-Tibetan communication, living patterns, ethnic intermarriage, and cultural exchanges, the study finds that: seen from the perspective of different life scenarios, awareness of national unity has been deeply embedded in the hearts of young students through various forms of national unity education; both the Han and Tibetans cherish the close relationships established in the work environment. In the workplace, they are willing to trust each other and establish cooperative relationships. At the same time, they are also willing to be kind to each other and live in harmony with their neighbors. By creating national unity and progressive activities, the role of the people of all ethnic groups in the urban community has been better brought into full play. Judging from the living patterns found there, the traditional model of a single-ethnic-community is no longer suitable for the development of modern urban society. Residents of all ethnic groups often choose suitable communities in which to live according to their work or life needs. The boundaries between the Hui and Han dwellings in the community are much undefined, and the Han and Tibetan residents are completely intermixed. In animal husbandry townships and agricultural townships, Han and Tibetan residents normally live in a certain area or within a certain area of the community. The community is divided into several housing units; the boundaries of Han and Tibetan dwellings are relatively obvious, and the ethnic contacts take place only along the borders of the residential areas. So, it shows a trend of a relatively mixed residence. However, the integration of the Han and Tibetan communities in the city is more pronounced. Judging from data on ethnic intermarriage, local Han-Tibetan intermarriage is relatively high and most people hold relatively open minded and inclusive attitudes with regard to Han-Tibetan intermarriage. From the perspective of cultural exchange, in the long-term, Han and Tibetan people learn from each other, and they are constantly adapting to each other’s customs and habits. The Tibetan people’s acceptance and recognition of Han culture is increasing more and more; and, Han people’s recognition of Tibetan culture is also very high. The harmonious relationship between Han and Tibetans is not only reflected in daily life and communications, but it has also infiltrated into the ethnic culture. An interwoven ethnic relationship is the inevitable result of the long-term coexistence and cooperation of the Han and Tibetan people. In long-term ethnic work, Haiyan County officials have always highlighted four aspects, including ethnic areas, ethnic groups, ethnic work, and ethnic culture, in carrying out their work. The development of Han-Tibetan ethnic relations shows some salient features: First, national unity has a long history. Han and Tibetan people help each other economically. They care about each other in their daily lives. They also have cultural exchanges. So, after carefully cultivating generations of Haiyan people, the concept of national unity is deeply rooted in the minds of Han and Tibetan people. Second, economic development is conducive to the formation of a harmonious ethnic relationship between the Han and Tibetan people. The gradual solution to basic livelihood issues has greatly improved the happiness of people of all ethnic groups. Especially in the vast, poor, pastoral areas, the improvement of economic and social conditions, and narrowing the gap between the rich and the poor among the Han and Tibetan people have further eliminated ethnic divisions and conflicts. Third, Han-Tibetan ethnic relations are the core of the pluralistic model of “Han-Tibetan-Mongolia-Hui-Tu”. Judging from the proportion of the population of the various ethnic groups, the interactive relationship between cultures, and the historical and practical influence of various ethnic groups, the Han, Tibetan, Mongolian, Hui and Tu have formed a more interactive relationship. Other ethnic groups have had a relatively small impact on the model of ethnic relations in Haiyan because of their relatively small populations and the short time that they have lived there. Tibetan Buddhism has also had a certain influence on the development of Han-Tibetan ethnic relations. Throughout Tibetan history, Buddhist temples have always been the political, economic, and cultural center of Tibetan settlements. Tibetan Buddhism has a profound influence on the daily lives of its followers, especially on their spiritual life. Depending on the temples, as carriers, the monks have advanced constantly the development of the national unity and progress, and made great contributions to the promotion of all ethnic groups, including the Han and Tibetan people, to live in peace, work together for a common cause, and develop in harmony. Although the Han-Tibetan ethnic relations have been good for a long time, there are still some inadeguacies. First of all, economic disputes between the Han and Tibetan people sometimes occur, mainly disputes over grasslands. However, the majority of the people are able to look at these disputes rationally. Secondly, the problem of poverty is still outstanding. In the implementation of the precise poverty alleviation work, outstanding problems, such as the imprecise identification of poor households, the slow development of poverty alleviation industries and the increased risk of poor households returning to poverty, have emerged. In view of the above issues, this study believes that the harmonious development of ethnic relations should be promoted through strengthening inter-ethnic communications, exchanges, and integration; promoting precise poverty alleviation, thereby guaranteeing poverty alleviation so as to promote the harmonious development of ethnic relations. Moreover, we also should safeguard the fundamental interests of the Han and Tibetan people in accordance with the law so as to further promote the establishment of a demonstration county for national unity and progress in Haiyan County, and promote the harmonious and stable development of society.
查看全文   查看/发表评论  下载PDF阅读器
关闭

手机扫一扫看
分享按钮