文章摘要
杨明洪,刘建霞.省市对口援藏制度及其演化分析[J].民族学刊,2019,10(1):1-11, 95-98
省市对口援藏制度及其演化分析
The System of Provinces-Cities’ Complementary Counterpart Assistance to Tibet and an Analysis of Its Evolution
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2019.01.01
中文关键词: 西藏  对口支援  省市对口援藏
英文关键词: Tibet  complementary counterpart assistance  system
基金项目:
作者单位
杨明洪 云南大学发展研究院四川大学经济学院、藏学研究所 
刘建霞 四川大学经济学院 
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中文摘要:
      省市对口援藏是中国最重要、最规范的对口援助形式。省市对口援藏制度兴起于中国计划经济时期,在以市场经济为改革取向的时代,其制度得以进一步完善,并初步实现了向横向转移支付制度的演化。从出现到逐渐制度化,省市对口援藏从援藏的形式、方式以及援藏资金转移方式等方面做出探索,最终演化成为省市对口援藏制度。作为一个特殊的边疆民族地区来讲,西藏的经济社会发展与内地省市的发展是紧密联系在一起的,内地援藏资源源源不断地向西藏输送,不仅输入了经济发展的各种生产要素,同时,输入了新的生产方式、新的观念,展示了中国各区域之间在发展上的连接,探索出“中国特色、西藏特点的发展路子”。同时,省市对口援藏制度及其演化趋势,既显示出与中央企业援藏、中央机关“系统援藏”的共同特性,同时也展示出自己的特色。后者表明,省市援藏已经成为整个对口援藏体系中的最为重要的角色。
英文摘要:
      The economic development of the ethnic minority areas in the border areas has been strongly promoted by an important program, namely, complementary counterpart assistance (CCA), and Complementary Counterpart Assistance to Tibet (CCAT) is the longest-running system for providing assistance in China, and it has set an important example for exploring the long-term development and long-term stability of ethnic minorities in border areas. The organizations providing assistance to Tibet can be divided into three forms of complementary assistance, namely, provinces-cities’ complementary counterpart assistance to Tibet (PCCAT), central enterprises’ complementary counterpart assistance to Tibet, and central institutions’ complementary counterpart assistance to Tibet. Among these, the PCCAT has the widest coverage, supporting 57 counties in Tibet, and accounts for 77%. The funds invested by the PCCAT programs account for more than 90% of all funds supporting Tibet. Hence, this article makes a preliminary study on the PCCAT system and its evolutionary trends. 1. The formation of the system of PCCAT The formation of the system of PCCAT has its own specific process. In December 1955, the central government sent 9 cadres and 45 cadres from Beijing and Xinjiang to work in Tibet. This can be regarded as the beginning of the PCCAT program, although we should note that the concept of “supporting and assisting Tibet” was only officially adopted at the First Tibet Work Forum in 1980. Furthermore, it was not until July 1994 that “Complementary Counterpart Assistance to Tibet” was officially confirmed as a program at the Third Tibet Work Forum. This forum confirmed the following principles: “responsibility would be divided into sectors; each province would provide targeted assistance; and different provinces would be periodically rotated to do so.” Fifteen provinces and municipalities were tasked to offer targeted assistance to seven prefecture-level cities in Tibet, i.e. Beijing and Jiangsu to Lhasa, Shanghai and Shandong to Shigatse, Hunan and Hubei to Shannan (Lhoka), Guangdong and Fujian to Linzhi (Nyingchi), Tianjin and Sichuan (including Chongqing) to Changdu (Chamdo), Zhejiang and Liaoning to Naqu (Nagchu), and Hebei and Shaanxi to Ali (Ngari). The Fourth Tibet Work Forum in 2001 added that Jilin and Heilongjiang would provide targeted assistance to Rikaze (Shigatse). and Anhui would assist Shannan (Lhoka) as well. Meanwhile, Chongqing would replace Sichuan to assist Chamdo. So far, the number of provinces and municipalities providing assistance to Tibet has reached 17. The Fifth Tibet Work Forum in January 2010 specified the amount (or shiwu gongzuoliang) of annual material assistance each province or municipality would provide to Tibet. To be more specific, under the current system, the amount of assistance should be calculated as 1‰ of the general budget revenue of the province’s previous year. Since 2016, Fujian has been reassigned to assist Chamdo instead of Nyingchi. In addition, 25% of the funds provided by Guangdong to Nyingchi and by Jiangsu and Beijing to Lhasa were reallocated to Chamdo. 2. The Forms of the PCCAT and the Modes for the Transfer of Funds The forms of PCCAT include cadres-assistance, economic-assistance, “brain power”-assistance, livelihood-assistance and investment attraction assistance. 1) “Cadres-Assistance” (or ganbu yuanzang) means that leading cadres and professional technical cadres of the CPC committee and government institutions are sent to work in Tibet for a period of time to provide targeted assistance to Tibet. Those cadres, as the core of the PCCAT program officially implemented in 1994, are the foremost implementers and facilitators of the policy. 2) “Economic-Assistance” (or jingji yuanzang) has had different meanings at different times, but because industrial development lies at the core of economic development, developing different industries has becomes its main direction. 3) “Brain Power-Assistance” (or zhili yuanzang) is sending teachers, doctors and engineering technicians to the assisted regions in Tibet by the partnership provinces or municipalities. This type of assistance can be combined with cadres-assistance, talents-assistance, technical -assistance, educational-assistance, and economic-assistance. 4) “Livelihood-Assistance” (or minsheng yuanzang) is quite extensive. It ranges from all forms of assistance, including education, employment, medical treatment, science and technology, as well as other public services, and is intertwined with “brain power-assistance”. In fact, there is no clear distinction among them. 5) Later, the central government recommended out that the self-development ability of the assisted regions should be enhanced, and at this time, those providing assistance begin to provide industrial assistance, utilizing the local resources and characteristics of the assisted regions to develop supporting industries which fit with the local mode of development. In this way, each region’s self-development ability could be enhanced. When these provinces and municipalities raise project funds, they begin to inject “private capital” (or shehui zijin) into the project in order to attract investment. In this process, the “cadres who come to Tibet to provide assistance” play a key role in attracting investment to Tibet. That is why “Investment Attraction Assistance to Tibet” (or zhaoshang yinzi yuanzang) was put into practice only after the form of “Cadres-Assistance” was sufficiently developed. There are four modes for transferring funds: “province to province,” (or sheng dui sheng), “province to county” (or sheng dui xian), “city to county” (or shi dui xian), and “department to department” (chi. bumen dui bumen). 1) “Province to province” mode means that the provincial or municipal financial department will directly transfer the assistance funds to the financial department of the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) which will then distribute the funds to the assisted cities and counties. 2) “Province to county” mode means that aid funds are transferred from the assisting provinces to the assisted cities and counties without the involvement of the provincial or municipal financial department. Instead, these funds are transferred from the financial department of the assisting cities and counties directly to the financial department of the assisted cities and counties. 3) “City to county” mode mainly means that the aid funds are transformed directly from the assisting cities to financial departments of the county-level governments in Tibet. 4) “Department to department” mode mainly refers to the transfer of funds within the same administrative system: from the departments of the contributing provinces and municipalities to their corresponding departments in the assisted regions of Tibet. For example, in the education system, when the education departments of the assisting provinces provide assistance to the education departments of the assisted regions, the source of the funds is the education departments and the funds will be transferred directly within the education departments. 3. Discussions and Conclusion Complementary Counterpart Assistance is one of China’s special regional policies, and it has already been 24 years since the system of PCCAT, one of the complementary counterpart assistance programs in China, was set up as a formal system. From its initial appearance to the beginning of its institutionalization, the program of PCCAT has undergone continuous development and optimization, and, has increasingly matured. The PCCAT system emerged in the era of planned economy, and in the era of market-oriented reform, provinces and cities gradually have developed their own relatively independent interests. Within this context, the PCCAT program has been continuously improved under the framework of the socialist market economy, and has initially realized its merger with the financial lateral transfer payment system. Finally, PCCA has become an effective way for the “inland” areas to support the economic and social development of border ethnic areas. This illustrates that all regions and ethnic groups in a large socialist country can “work together for common prosperity and development” in order to safeguard “national unity and ethnic unity”. Since the formal establishment of the system, related provinces and cities have explored the various forms, modes and transfer modes of aid to Tibet, and, through this, a relatively complete system of PCCAT has been created, and the formation of this system has become an integral part of the “overall supply model” of Tibet. It should be noted that, as a special frontier ethnic region, Tibet’s economic and social development is closely intertwined with the development of the inland provinces and cities. The resource aid to Tibet has been continuously transported to Tibet from the inland provinces and cities. This includes not only different kinds of essential productive factors for economic development, but also new modes of production and new ideas. It has set up connections between various regions of China on the issue of development, and provided a means for which a “development path with Chinese characteristics and Tibet features” has been explored. At the same time, the system of PCCAT and its evolutionary trends not only illustrate the common characteristics of “systematic assistance to Tibet” provided by central enterprises and central organs, but also show its own characteristics. The research indicates that PCCAT plays the most important role in the entire system of complementary counterpart assistance to Tibet. Within the system of counterpart aid to Tibet, no matter whether it is from the main body of aid to Tibet or from the content of the help and the relationships formed between the recipient and providers, PCCAT has its own characteristics, as well as common problems which need to be overcome. These include the overall planning and coordination of aid funds, supervision and control of aid activities, and evaluation and improvement of aid benefits. All these issues require special attention and study.
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