文章摘要
覃 琮,吴絮颖.从古歌到民族史诗:《密洛陀》的搜集整理和研究综述[J].民族学刊,2020,11(5):84-92, 150-151
从古歌到民族史诗:《密洛陀》的搜集整理和研究综述
From Ancient Ballads to Ethnic Epics: The Collection of the Yao Epic Miluotuo and a Review of Related Research
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2020.05.11
中文关键词: 密洛陀》  古歌  民族史诗  布努瑶
英文关键词: Miluotuo  collecting  research  review  prospect
基金项目:
作者单位
覃 琮 广西师范大学政治与公共管理学院 
吴絮颖 桂林电子科技大学马克思主义学院 
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中文摘要:
      《密洛陀》是瑶族的民族史诗,主要流传在桂西北的布努瑶支系,被誉为布努瑶的“百科全书”,具有重要的研究价值和社会意义。半个多世纪以来学界对《密洛陀》搜集整理以及相关研究都取得了很大的成就,主要表现为先后出版了五个版本的《密洛陀》,使《密洛陀》汇入中国民族史诗的长廊,在研究上则探讨了《密洛陀》的定位、创世特点、哲学思想、文化认同、传承规律、史诗比较等众多议题,但也存在着搜集整理成果形式单一、重文本轻田野的研究倾向等问题。今后《密洛陀》的研究,需要全方位、立体式地进行搜集整理,在研究方面则要加大田野调查研究、拓宽研究领域、实现与国内外史诗研究接轨。
英文摘要:
      The Yao are an important member of China’s multi-ethnic family. They are also a cosmopolitan group, mainly distributed in China, Southeast Asia as well as other places. The Yao have various branches, including the Pan Yao, Bunu Yao, Pingdi Yao and so on. Miluotuo is a Yao epic that mainly circulates among the Bunu Yao branch who are mainly distributed in Du’an, Bama and Dahua autonomous counties and surrounding areas in northwest Guangxi province, an area that involves more than ten townships with a population of nearly half a million. This epic is a creation myth that mainly tells the story of grandmother Miluotuo and her two generations of children, the God of Work and the Warrior God, who created the universe and mankind, as well as the story of the ancestors of the Yao and their migration to the south. It is a complex epic combining the creation of world heroes, and explains the Yao migration. It possesses an integrated system of many sub-branch songs, a grand narrative and complex content. It is known as the spiritual pillar and “encyclopedia” of the Bunu Yao. From sporadic investigations since the 1960s to the 1980’s and after when a comprehensive collection was made, sorted out and published, a total of five versions of the text of the Miluotuo epic has been published. These publications eventually enabled the Bunu Yao’s “Song of the Mother” to walk out of the Yao mountains and into the corridor of the starry sky of the Chinese national epic, becoming a model text of the southern ethnic epic. Since the 1980s, the Miluotuo epic has attracted the attention of Chinese academic circles. Scholars have discussed the position of the Miluotuo in the literature of the Yao, its creation characteristics, philosophical thoughts, cultural identity, and rules for transmission, and compared it with other epics. Since the Miluotuo listed as a national level intangible cultural heritage in 2011, the position of the epic in the whole history and culture of the Yao, as well as its intangible cultural heritage value, academic value, rules for transmission, innovative development and other issues have attracted more and more scholarly attention. The study of the Miluotuo in academic circles is deepening day by day, and related research is now entering an active phase. In the future, the collection and sorting of the Miluotuo should be carried out in an all-round and three-dimensional way. First, various documentation methods, such as writing down the text, and recording sound, image and video, should be used to sort out the rich materials including language, sound, folk scenes, creation of singers, live performance and audience interaction, and so on. Second, modern new media means should be used to collect and record each version of the narration and build a database. In terms of aspects of research, firstly, fieldwork should be intensified, with the focus on the patterns of transmission and investigation of the current state of inheritance of the Miluotuo. Secondly, the field of research should be broadened, involving a study of other cultural aspects such as the zhuzhu festival, bronze drums and costumes. Thirdly, the research of the Miluotuo should be integrated with epic studies from home and abroad. The purpose of integrating it with domestic and foreign epic studies is to let the Miluotuo and its related research “walk out” to join the general trend of poetics research, and expand the influence of the Miluotuo in China or even in the world epic academic circles. As the result of turning myths and legends into epics, the textualization process of the Miluotuo is not only the development history of Yao folk literature, but also a reflection of the collection, sorting and research of China’s ethnic minority epics since the 1950s and 1960s (Feng, 2015). With the establishment of the north-south pattern of ethnic epics research, collecting, sorting and researching ethnic epics in China are entering the stage of academic reflection, and the scientific and institutional development of Chinese epics research is progressing in an orderly manner (Ba, 2017). The future collection and study of Miluotuo should fully seize this favorable opportunity, make up for the shortcomings as soon as possible, consciously conform to the theories and methods of domestic and foreign epic studies, and highlight the academic value and unique contribution of the Miluotuo. This is a very important and grand subject which needs the joint efforts of all the researchers of the Miluotuo.
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