文章摘要
周毛卡.青藏高原“牧民定居”的中西方比较研究与写文化[J].民族学刊,2020,11(5):74-83, 148-149
青藏高原“牧民定居”的中西方比较研究与写文化
A Comparison of Western and Chinese Literature on the “Settlement of Nomads” in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and “Writing Culture”
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2020.05.10
中文关键词: 青藏高原  藏族游牧地区  牧民定居  中外研究比较  写文化
英文关键词: Tibetan pastoral areas  Nomadic Settlement Project  comparative research  “writing culture”
基金项目:
作者单位
周毛卡 西南民族大学民族学与社会学学院 
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中文摘要:
      本文围绕国内外学界对青藏高原游牧地区“牧民定居”工程的讨论,按年代顺序对上个世纪,特别是新中国成立以来有关藏族游牧地区“牧民定居”及游牧社会文化研究的主要著述进行了梳理、述评和比较。文章认为,老一辈研究者对藏族游牧地区社会文化的论著为这一领域的研究打下了坚实的基础并极具开拓意义。最近十几年来的论著则主要围绕“草场承包”“生态移民”“牧民定居”等政策,实施以来的相关牧民社会文化变迁等,在论文数量和研究范围方面有了大幅的提高,研究人员俱增,但专门著作与反思性文章相对缺乏。就“牧民定居”研究来说,由于受调研地海拔较高、交通不便等客观条件的影响和调查者自身语言、时间、刻板印象等主观因素的限制,很多研究未能深入。因而进一步指出,要做好“牧民定居”研究就必须了解和结合整个青藏高原游牧地区的社会文化,并进行长时期的参与观察研究。
英文摘要:
      Focusing on the domestic and foreign academic discussions on the pros and cons of the “Nomadic Settlement Project” in Tibetan pastoral areas, this article intends to sort out, review and compare the scholarship on this topic by placing it within a larger historical context, particularly that since the founding of People’s Republic of China. Earlier scholarship on this topic laid a solid foundation, and many works have pioneering significance. In the past two decades, the academic research mainly focused on issues related to the implementation of policies, such as “grassland contracts”, “ecological migration policy”, “nomadic settlement project” etc., and the social and cultural changes of the herdsmen. Although it has become more diverse in terms of research topics, there is a relative lack of reflective and in-depth fieldwork research, as well as theoretical breakthroughs. As far as the research on the “Nomadic Settlement Project” is concerned, with the progress of the project and the deepening of the research, the attitudes of domestic and foreign scholars towards the settlement of herdsmen have changed from a completely positive attitude or completely negative one. However, there is a general skepticism and critical scholarship on the “Nomadic Settlement Project” among foreign scholars. Putting the “settlement project” of Tibetan herdsmen within a world framework, taking it as a contemporary interpretation and regional case of previous unsuccessful settlements of herdsmen, and in combining this with their different professional backgrounds, foreign scholars generally hold a negative or critical attitude towards the “nomadic settlement”. After observing many problems within the social cultures of the herdsmen in settlements, domestic scholars turned from holding initially totally positive views to becoming more reflective, and put forward more relevant countermeasures and suggestions according to actual investigation. However, we find a convergence over concern for the lives of Tibetan pastoralists both among domestic and foreign scholars. Due to objective conditions such as high altitude, inconvenient transportation, and subjective factors of the investigators, such as lack of local language training, lack of longitudinal research, and different cultural backgrounds, the existing scholarship on the “Nomadic Settlement Project” has not yet been a thoroughly-examined topic. Assessing from the number of articles, there is a bourgeoning literature on this topic, and research areas range from settlement patterns, economic impacts, school education, employment, labor, and cultural changes. Among this body of research, there are some valuable and meaningful investigations. However, in general, the lack of in-depth fieldwork research, certain preexisting views of Tibetan pastoralists, and the pressure of meeting certain research deadlines, have hindered many researchers to produce solid scholarship. Thus, much of the scholarship only touches the surface of the “Nomadic Settlement Project” replete with preexisting views, speculations, suggestions that are unrealistic, and case studies that are not thoroughly examined. There is also lack of systematic and holistic research on the process of the “settlement”, as well as a lack of exploration on cultural adaptation during this process. From the concept of acculturation or culturation, the phenomenon of cultural shock and assimilation is predicted. And there is a notable lack of discussion of the internal structures of pastoral society, nomadic way of life, and the herders’ own visions of the world and their corresponding ideologies. Therefore, this article further points out we must understand and integrate the nomadic cultures of the whole Tibetan area if we want to improve scholarship on the “Nomadic Settlement Project”. And, because this project is a dynamic process, the researchers should do longitudinal research and explore the social changes gradually. Only by conducting long-term fieldwork research, can we further advance our understanding and have deeper reflections on the current policies of the Tibetan nomadic societies, promote better communication and understanding among policy makers, local administrators, and pastoralists, thereby making sustainable policies that are more appropriate for the area and its future. In addition, this article argues that apart from pure academic research, there are excellent literary, artistic, film and television works related to the topic of the “Nomadic Settlement Project” created by local intellectuals which have recorded and presented the past, ongoing changes and part of the reality of today’s nomadic society and culture from different perspectives, different aspects and different means. These works of “writing culture” also provide us with invaluable insights, and are worthy of our study and reference.
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