文章摘要
周文德,詹莎莎.彝汉文化交融下的贵州十二生肖地名[J].民族学刊,2020,11(5):43-50, 137-138
彝汉文化交融下的贵州十二生肖地名
The Chinese Zodiac Place Names in Guizhou within the Context of the Cultural Integration of the Yi and Han
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2020.05.06
中文关键词: 地名  十二生肖  贵州  非物质文化遗产  彝汉文化交融
英文关键词: place name  the Chinese zodiac  Guizhou  intangible cultural heritage
基金项目:
作者单位
周文德 四川外国语大学地名研究中心 
詹莎莎 贵州省绥阳中学 
摘要点击次数: 34
全文下载次数: 47
中文摘要:
      地名属非物质文化遗产,在我国分布较广的生肖地名是我国地名文化遗产的重要组成部分,我国十二生肖地名最集中的省份当属贵州。贵州全省6个地级市3个自治州均有生肖地名,这个现象在我国省级政区里独一无二,特别是把生肖动物名用于标记农村集市贸易日期、集市贸易地点,进而成为地名,构成十二生肖系列地名,“生肖名+场”字地名是彝汉文化交流融合的产物,是彝汉共同的民族文化遗产,为中国地名文化增添了一道亮丽的地名景观。通过对贵州全省行政区划地名以及乡村聚落地名、社区地名进行全面系统的梳理,展示贵州省十二生肖地名的完整面貌,为地名文化遗产的研究与保护提供经过整理的基础数据和宝贵资料,增强文化自信,提高文化自觉意识。
英文摘要:
      Place names, the product of social activities of diverse ethnicities in different historical periods, are the historical witness and cultural accumulation of a region. The Chinese zodiac place names, widely distributed in China, can be regarded as China’s place name cultural heritage. The Chinese zodiac place names in Guizhou, which resulted from the exchange and integration of the Yi and Han cultures, are an important part of Chinese national cultural heritage. As one of the crucial ingredients of traditional Chinese culture, the twelve animals of the Chinese zodiac are not only used for designating the calendar year, date and time, but also for marking fixed trading periods and trading places in rural areas of Guizhou province. These were then turned into place names, consisting of place names of the zodiac series. In Guizhou, Chinese zodiac place names exist in 6 prefecture-level cities and 3 autonomous prefectures, which is a unique phenomenon in the provincial administrative regions of China. They especially mark trading dates and trading places in rural areas, and are composed of place names from the zodiac series by using zodiac animals. Place names indicated by the zodiac animal name plus 场 (cháng, which means market in the Chinese language.) are the products of cultural exchange and integration of the Yi and Han, and reflect the shared ethnic cultural heritage of the two ethnic groups, the products combined by the zodiac culture and economic development of the market trade, all of which adds a splendid landscape for the culture of Chinese place names. We systematically sorted out the place names of the administrative districts, rural settlements and urban communities in the entire Guizhou province, presenting a holistic picture and detailed data of the Chinese zodiac place names. In addition, this study examines the Chinese zodiac place names in Guizhou from ethnic, cultural, linguistic and cognitive perspectives with the purpose of providing sorted basic data and proven precious documents for examining and protecting the cultural heritage of place names, strengthening cultural confidence and raising cultural awareness. This article is composed of five parts: Part one investigates “the transformation from designating dates to marking place”. In the northern part of China, trading activities having fixed periods are called “going to market”; the appointed day which focuses on the actual trade activity is called market day. In many places of Guizhou, people designate date by the Ganzhi system, a combination of the Heavenly Stems (ten, used as serial numbers) and Earthly Branches (twelve) used to designate years, months, days and hours. For easy memorization, the periods of market trade are named by the Chinese zodiac corresponding to the stem and branch day. Going to market on the day called “辰” (chén, the fifth of the twelve Earthly Branches) is termed as going to the “dragon” market; on “午” (wǔ, the seventh of the twelve Earthly Branches) is to the “horse” market; on “亥” (hài, the last of the twelve Earthly Branches) is to the “pig” market. Therefore, in the long run, trading locations corresponding to the Chinese zodiac day are named the “dragon” market, “horse” market and “pig” market. The market place where residents gather regularly, and the zodiac date which originally marked the trading periods changed to refer to the market place, and then became the place name, and later the name of villages, townships, towns and communities. The Chinese zodiac characters have thus, completed a transformation from marking time to marking geographical space. In other words, they finished shifting from simply marking days to marking a day and market place simultaneously, and ultimately to becoming the place names. Part two presents the current situation of the Chinese zodiac place names in Guizhou. All the twelve zodiac animal names appear in the place names found in this province. In terms of geographical distribution, the Chinese zodiac place names cover 9 prefecture-level districts of Guizhou, which means they are universal. Part three probes more deeply into the Chinese zodiac place names and market culture. The zodiac characters have evolved from marking a day to marking both a day and a place, and then became the name of a place having fixed trading periods. Although this way of naming places appears in other provinces as well, it only appears in some parts of regions or in individual areas. This cannot be compared with the situation in Guizhou where the use of zodiac place names is widespread in all the counties, cities and prefectures. This kind of place naming phenomenon has something to do with the birth and development of market culture in Guizhou. Seen from the characteristics and way of naming places in our country, naming using the Chinese zodiac name plus场 (cháng) is a special way of naming a place, which is a derivative of social and economic development as well as market trade. Part four examines the homophonic refining of the zodiac names. In the process of the spread of place names, a certain场 (cháng ) will be renamed as certain昌 (chāng, prosperity), such as羊昌(yáng chāng, sheep prosperity), 龙昌 (lóng chāng, dragon prosperity), 蛇昌 (shé chāng, snake prosperity. 猪 (zhū, pig) 场 (cháng) is renamed as朱 (zhū, a surname) 昌 (chāng, prosperity). Altogether, there are 38 zodiac place names that are homophonically refined in Guizhou. Part five inquires in to the cultural exchange and integration between the Chinese zodiac place names and the ethnic cultures in Guizhou. The formation of the Chinese zodiac name plus场 (cháng) does not result from a single ethnic culture. In Guizhou, the region which is most widely covered by the places named by the Chinese zodiac name plus场 (cháng) is not only the region most widely populated by the Yi, but it is also the region most populated region by the Han. Put another way, in Guizhou, the region where the zodiac names are most widely distributed is dominated by the Yi and Han ethnic groups, with other brotherly ethnic groups living side by side. The place names characterized by the Chinese zodiac name plus 场 (cháng) in Guizhou are the products of a newly-borne cultural phenomenon and they bear witness to the cultural exchange and integration between the Yi and Han. Place names are proper nouns in language. In the process of ethnic cultural integration, place names often reflect the process of exchange and integration among ethnic cultures, which has close tie with the social environment in which an ethnic culture lies. The place names characterized by the Chinese zodiac name plus场 (cháng) is a way of naming places by combing the twelve animal calendar of the Yi and the twelve zodiacal animal calendar of the Han. This place naming way is not only the product of the exchange and integration of the Yi and Han culture, but it is also the reflection of market culture in place names under the condition of the agricultural economy in Guizhou.
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