文章摘要
马富英,依 乌,维色阿甲.藏彝族际通婚与文化认同——以四川省甘孜藏族自治州九龙县踏卡彝族乡为例[J].民族学刊,2020,11(5):36-42, 135-136
藏彝族际通婚与文化认同——以四川省甘孜藏族自治州九龙县踏卡彝族乡为例
Inter-Ethnic Marriage between the Tibetan and Yi and Their Cultural Identity — Taking Taka Yi Township, Jiulong County, Ganzi Prefecture, Sichuan Province as a Case Study
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2020.05.05
中文关键词: 族际通婚  文化认同  藏族  彝族
英文关键词: inter-ethnic marriage  cultural identity
基金项目:
作者单位
马富英 西南民族大学民族学与社会学学院 
依 乌 西南民族大学中国语言文学院 
维色阿甲 甘孜藏族自治州九龙县高级中学 
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中文摘要:
      调查研究发现甘孜藏族自治州九龙县踏卡乡藏彝族际通婚普遍,族际婚姻稳定。在族际通婚中,藏彝民族形成了强烈稳固的族内文化认同,和谐包容的族际文化认同以及清晰明确的中华文化认同。族际通婚的本质是文化认同,它在族内文化认同和族际文化认同的基础上,促进了更大范围更深层次的中华文化认同。
英文摘要:
      Inter-ethnic marriage is not only an important way to measure the dimension of cultural identity, but it is also a vivid portrayal of cultural identity. For thousands of years, in the historical process of ethnic development and evolution, inter-ethic marriage has played a positive role in maintaining ethnic relationships and promoting cultural identities. Because it has become common for different ethnic groups to constantly communicate and blend with one another, inter-ethnic marriage will become an inevitable trend of human society. For the Tibetan and Yi ethnic groups in Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, inter-ethnic marriage is not only a kind of marriage pattern, but it is also a kind of attitude towards life, and even more, a kind of recognition of identity values. So, inter-ethnic marriage between Tibetan and Yi peoples in Ganzi has both distinct regional and ethnic characteristics, and therefore, the mechanisms which generated it and put it into practice are worthy of attention and in-depth study. Cultural identity is not only the premise of ethnicity in marriage, but also its core. . In view the developmental relationship between ethnic minorities and the state, this paper summarizes the connotations of cultural identity into the following three aspects: First, there is the ethnic members’ identity to their own culture, that is, their cultural identity within an ethnic group; Second, there is the ethnic members’ identity with regard to other ethnic cultures, that is, their ethnic cultural identity among ethnic groups; and the third is the identity of the various ethnic groups to Chinese culture, that is, their Chinese cultural identity. Since the middle of the Qing Dynasty, the Yi people have lived in Jiulong county. They have maintained a relatively intact Yi traditional culture, and have shown their cultural confidence and consciousness in terms of language use, religious beliefs, festivals, life customs, taboos and norms. Within the context of inter-ethnic marriage, whether the marriage party is Tibetan or Yi, they all follow their own cultural traditions and maintain their own religious lives. The cultural identity within the ethnic group is strong and stable. In the questionnaire survey, most of the intermarried Tibetan and Yi expressed their love for their own ethnic minority culture, and thought it is important to learn about the ethnic culture. As is shown in the interviews, both the Tibetan and Yi who intermarried expressed that it was natural to transmit their own ethnic cultural traditions, and that respecting each other’s ethnic cultural traditions was realistic request. Our investigation shows that, in daily life, both Tibetan and Yi people in Taka township have tried to learn and use the other’s language. And, we found that borrowing words from the other ethnic group’s language is very common, which inevitably affected their language’s sound systems. Such a phenomenon is very outstanding in Taka township. They also have often tried to wear the other ethnic group’s clothes, eat the other’s ethnic foods, become sworn-brothers and sisters, paid respect to each other’s family, and celebrated festivals together. Such a phenomenon is also very common in Taka township. Mutual respect and acceptance of the other’s religious life was very harmonious. It is precisely because of the acceptance and recognition of livelihood, language, religion and social culture that the ethnic boundaries and cultural barriers were reduced subjectively, thereby providing an extensive and profound psychological foundation and social support for inter-ethnic marriage and cultural identity. In inter-ethnic marriages, the Tibetan and Yi ethnic groups show full respect and acceptance for each other’s cultural traditions and religious beliefs, and such cultural contact and acculturation yielded a high degree of cohesiveness. The two sides of marriage can view the differences between ethnic cultures rationally, treat each other’s cultural values with an equal and tolerant attitude, and realize the harmony and tolerance of inter-ethnic cultural identity. On the basis of self-identity and mutual identity, the Tibetan and Yi ethnic groups have formed a clear sense of the Chinese national community and Chinese cultural identity. Inter-ethnic marriage is the result of cultural identity, and it is also a factor that cannot be ignored. Cultural identity belongs to the category of history, and different historical periods have different expressions of content and form. Under the new historical conditions, the realization of the Chinese dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, to a large extent, depends on the people of all ethnic groups forging a strong sense of national community and highly identifying with Chinese culture. The common formation of inter-marriage and the harmony and stability of cultural identity among Tibetan and Yi people in Taka township are closely related to the construction of socialist core value system based on the moral code of “eight honors and eight humiliations” and the conventions of rural civilization carried by local Party organizations in this area. The construction of Chinese cultural identity should not only guide the people of all ethnic groups to recognize the homogeneity of internal culture, inter-ethnic culture and Chinese culture, but also actively promote Chinese culture to further sublimate and internalize the common guidance values and spiritual belonging of all ethnic groups. Economic development fundamentally determines the entire process of cultural construction of each nation and affects the strength of Chinese cultural identity. The rising material standard of living not only provides the economic conditions for satisfying the spiritual life of the people of all ethnic groups, but also lays a solid material foundation for the construction of Chinese cultural identity. The ethnic theory policy, which takes equality and unity as the core, is the political foundation for the construction of Chinese cultural identity, whereas the life philosophy of seeking common ground while reserving differences and accommodating each other is the value pursuit of Chinese cultural identity in the inter-marriage of the Tibetan and Yi in Taka township. To sum up, the general formation and good development of inter-ethnic marriage between the Tibetan and Yi peoples in Taka Township, Jiulong County, Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture is the result of the specific social and historical conditions and cultural environment acting on the extensive inter-ethnic communication, which has obvious regionality and is characteristic of the times. Of course, inter-ethnic marriage is a subjective choice made by ethnic members based on objective conditions. Its process is historical, not artificial, and cannot be realized by state laws or administrative means. The essence of inter-ethnic marriage is cultural identity, on the basis of inner-ethnic cultural identity and inter-ethnic cultural identity, which promotes a broader and deeper level of Chinese cultural identity.
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