文章摘要
石一婷,马尚林.劳动力转移的困境和挑战——基于对凉山彝族外出务工人员困境的思考[J].民族学刊,2020,11(5):19-25, 131-132
劳动力转移的困境和挑战——基于对凉山彝族外出务工人员困境的思考
The Dilemmas and Challenges of the Transfer of Labor — Some Thoughts based on the Dilemma of Liangshan Yi Migrant Workers
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2020.05.03
中文关键词: 凉山彝族  劳动力转移  困境和挑战
英文关键词: Liangshan Yi  labor transfer  dilemmas  challenges
基金项目:
作者单位
石一婷 中国人民公安大学侦查与反恐怖学院 
马尚林 西南民族大学国际教育学院 
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中文摘要:
      目前,在凉山彝区,外出务工是劳动力转移的主要方式,许多家庭通过外出务工脱贫致富。在当地无力承担和消化剩余劳动力的情况下,外出务工的现象将长期存在,正确认识彝区劳动力转移的合理性非常必要。为此笔者对四川凉山的冕宁、盐源等地彝区外出务工人员较多的村寨通过田野调查方式,了解当地劳动力转移的历史和现状,掌握存在的问题并分析其原因,提出解决思路和具体措施。应该建立劳动力转移的社会支持系统,继续不懈地积极推进劳动力转移工作。继续加大各级职业技术教育,增强劳动力转移的市场竞争力。加强法制教育,促进用人机构和彝族群众增强法制意识,依法促进彝族务工者的城市融入。进一步强化乡镇劳务开发工作体系建设,加强跨区域合作,倡导有序输出,规范对劳务经纪人的管理,强化劳务培训质量,提高彝族务工人员素质,保护彝族务工人员的合法益。
英文摘要:
      Since the period of “Reform and Opening Up”, and with the acceleration of the process of urbanization, the tide of economic development has been pounding the shores of the remote areas where the Yi ethnic group live in Sichuan, and, as a result, many of them have joined the waves of migrant workers. In recent years, the number of migrant workers from the Yi Areas has increased annually. This labor force transfer is characterized by diversified industries, regional expansion, and complex personnel structure. It is, moreover, faced with many problems such as legal security, urban management, and institutional norms, which have a far-reaching impact on the construction of harmonious urban ethnic relations. Through conducting fieldwork in Liangshan Yi villages which have a relatively large number of migrant workers, and targeting the investigation on the migrant workers’ situation, and the history and status quo of the local labor transfer, this article tries to understand the existing problems of labor transfer and analyze its causes. It then puts forward some specific measures to solve these problems. In terms of the structure of industry in Liangshan, the proportion of industry is not large; only a few small-scale industries and enterprises exist there. The amount of surplus rural labor cannot be digested locally, so, many people choose to go out for work. Generally, there are two main ways to become a migrant worker in Liangshan Yi area: first, under the guidance of the government, there is planned labor export to the outside world; second, the local surplus rural labor goes out to seek work by themselves. In view of the situation of abundant labor resources in Liangshan, and in order to realize the labor transfer in a reasonable and orderly way, the Liangshan Prefectural Committee of the CPC and the Prefectural Government, since 2010, made a decision to implement the “Double Hundred” labor development project. All areas and relevant departments in the prefecture have taken the transfer of rural labor as an important measure to increase farmers’ income, and it has achieved some results in the past years. The specific ways to do this is: 1) to strengthen the organizational leadership so that the joint force of labor development is enhanced; 2) to focus on the industrialization of labor export, and further improve the level of marketization; 3) to carry out skills training to improve the overall quality of migrant workers; and 4) to enhance the legal awareness of migrant workers, protect their rights in a lawful manner, and ensure their rights and interests. The investigation shows that the main reason for Liangshan Yi people to go out for work is that Liangshan is located in a poor area contiguous with the Wumeng Mountain area. The disadvantages of the natural environment, transportation and location are not conduc畩捶慥琠楴潯渠ⱴ⁨敥渠捤潥當牥慬杯数敥浮灴氠潯祦洠敡湧瑲⁩楣湵獬瑴極瑲略琠楡潮湤猠⁩慮湤摵⁳瑴桲敹‮夠楍灲敥潯灶汥敲‬琠潴⁨敥渠桰慯湰捵敬⁡瑴桩敯楮爠⁢慡睳慥爠敩湳攠獬獡⁲潧晥‬琠桡敮⁤氠整杨慥氠⁦獯祵獮瑤敡浴Ⱪ慮渠摯⁦瀠牬潯浣潡瑬攠⁥瑭桰敬楹湭瑥敮杴爠慩瑳椠潰湯潲昮†奓楩督潥爠歴敨牥猠⁰楥湲⁩捯楤琠楯敦猠⁒楥湦慲捭挠潡牮摤愠湏捰敥睩楮瑧栠⁕瑰栬攠⁴汨慥眠⹳ੵ䥲湰瑵敳爠浬獡⁢潯晲†捦潯畲湣瑥攠物浮攠慌獩畡牮敧獳ⱨ⁡瑮栠楙獩†慲牥瑧楩捯汮攠⁨灡潳椠湢瑥獥漠畩瑮⁣瑲桥慡瑳⁩睮敧†獹桥潡畲汬摹‮挠潉牮爠整捨瑥氠礱‹甸渰摳攬爠獴瑨慥渠摳⁵瑲桰敬⁵牳漠汬敡⁢潯晲†奷楡⁳洠業条物慮湬瑹†睡潢牳歯敲牢獥⁤椠湢⁹瀠牬潯浣潡瑬椠湴杯⁷敮捳潨湩潰洠楥据⁴摥敲癰敲汩潳灥浳攮渠瑁㭦⁴潥牲朠慴湨楥挠愱氹氹礰⁳挬漠浨扯楷湥敶⁥瑲栬攠⁴浨慥渠慴杯敷浮敳湨瑩⁰漠晥灴汥慲捰敲獩⁳晥潳爠⁷扥潮瑴栠⁢瑡桮敫⁲汵慰扴漠牯敥砠灡潦牴瑥⁲愠湡摮楴浨灥潲爬琠㭡慤搠摡爠敬獡獲⁧扥漠瑮桵瑢桥敲†獯祦洠灴瑨潥洠獳⁵慲湰摬⁵瑳栠敬⁡牢潯潲琠⁦捯慲畣獥攠獴Ⱳ⁡慮湳摦⁥晲畲湥摤愠浴敯渠瑣慩汴汩祥⁳献漠汔癨敯⁳瑥栠敷楨牯†灭牯潶扥汤攠浴獯⸠⁴坨敥†捣潩畴汩摥⁳猠瑦慯牵瑮⁤映牴潨浡⁴琠桭敩⁧晲潡汮汴漠睷楯湲杫⁥慲獳瀠敥捡瑲獮㩥⁤ㄠ⥦⁡獲琠牭敯湲来琠桴敨湡琠桴敨捳潥渠獷瑨牯甠捦瑡楲潭湥⁤漠晡⁴琠桨敯瑥漮眠湈獯桷楥灶⁥汲愬戠潴牨⁥摹攠癡敬汳潯瀠浦敡湣瑥⁤猠祭獡瑮敹洠㭤⁩㉬⥥獭瑡牳攮渠杆瑯桲攠湥⁸瑡牭慰湬獥⴬爠整杨楥潲湥愠汷⁡捳漠潡瀠敬牯慴琠楯潦渠㭰⁲㍥⥳⁳慵摲癥漠捩慮琠敯⁢瑴桡敩潩牮摧攠牥汭祰敯硹灭潥牮瑴‬漠晡汤愠扴潨牥†慮湵摭⁢獥瑲慳渠摯慦爠摴楨穥攠⁵瑮桥敭⁰浬慯湹慥杤攠浢敥湧瑡漠晴氠慩扮潣牲⁥扡牳潥欻攠牡獮㭤†㑴⥨⁥獹琠牨敡湤朠瑴桯攠湦⁡瑣桥攠⁡琠牤慩楦湦楩湣杵潴映煩畦慥氠楷瑩祴⁨氠慰扯潯牲Ⱐ慩湶摩楧洠灣牯潮癤敩⁴瑩桯敮⁳焮甠慁汣楣瑯祲⁤潩普⁧琠桴敯†奴楨⁥眠潳牵歲敶牥獹㬬†㕴⥨⁥灲牥漠瑡敲捥琠⁦瑩桶敥†汭敡杩楮琠楲浥慡瑳敯牳椠杦桯瑲猠⁴慨湥摩⁲椠湤瑩敬牥敭獭瑡獳›漠昱
夠楡†浬楯杷爠慬湥瑶⁥睬漠牯武攠牥獤㭵⁣慡湴摩㙮⤬†獬瑡牣敫渠杯瑦栠数湲敦摥畳捳慩瑯楮潡湬†楳湫⁩敬瑬桳渠楡据⁤甠湰楯瑯祲†慥湭摰灯特潡浢潩瑬敩⁴敹琻栠渲椩挠⁴敨硥挠桤慩湦杦敩獣Ⱶ捴潹洠浯畦渠楩据慴瑥楧潲湡⁴慩湮摧†楩湮瑴敯朠牣慩瑴楹漠湬⹩fe due to cultural differences; 3) their weakness in legal awareness; and 4) an imperfect labor broker team without standard behavior. In essence, the transfer of the Liangshan Yi labor force includes two theoretical problems. The first is how much of the social and economic development of Liangshan can absorb the local labor force, and whether the labor force can be transformed locally in order to meet the needs of local poverty alleviation. The second is what problems should be solved in order to enable the Liangshan Yi to integrate better into the cities and to be more competitive in the labor market? Considering the above two problems comprehensively, this article puts forward three main ideas for the labor transfer of the Liangshan Yi as follows: 1) establish a social support system for labor transfer, and continue to promote labor transfer; 2) continue to increase vocational and technical education at all levels in order to make this labor force transfer more competitive in the market; and 3) strengthen legal ed
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