文章摘要
姜太碧,刘嘉鑫.城市少数民族汉语能力与收入效应分析[J].民族学刊,2020,11(5):7-18, 129-130
城市少数民族汉语能力与收入效应分析
A Study of the Effect on Income of Chinese Language Ability of Ethnic Jiang Taibi in Cities
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2020.05.02
中文关键词: 城市少数民族  汉语综合能力  人力资本  收入效应
英文关键词: urban minority  comprehensive Chinese language ability  human capital  the effect on income
基金项目:
作者单位
姜太碧 西南民族大学经济学院 
刘嘉鑫 西南民族大学经济学院 
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中文摘要:
      语言是人类交往和交流的媒介。通过语言,人类不仅区分族群,形成族群的共同标识,维系族群的共同价值;而且人类还可通过语言与其他族群进行交流,增进相互间的沟通、理解、信任与合作,从而产生人类交往的社会价值和经济价值等。本文基于“中国城市少数民族社会经济发展综合调查”数据,采用明瑟方程对我国城市少数民族汉语能力的收入效应进行分析。结果显示,我国城市少数民族汉语综合能力存在显著的收入效应,即汉语综合能力每提高一个等级,城市少数民族家庭人均年收入将增加7.5%,家庭等价规模收入增加6.26%,且这种效应在民族地区能得到稳健和一致的验证。另外,汉语能力的分位数回归结果说明,汉语综合能力对城市少数民族低收入家庭人均年收入和家庭等价规模收入的边际贡献更大,低收入家庭几乎是高收入家庭的1倍左右。此外,在城市低收入家庭中,教育、政治面貌和社会关系的收入效应边际贡献均要大于高收入家庭。因此,采取各种措施提高少数民族的汉语综合能力,这对提高我国城市少数民族低收入家庭的人均年收入和家庭等价规模收入均具有重要政策启示。
英文摘要:
      Language is the medium of human communication. Through language, human beings can not only differentiate their ethnicity, form a common ethnic marker, and maintain their common values, but they can also communicate with other ethnic groups, enhance mutual communication, understanding, trust and cooperation, thereby generating social and economic values of human communication. The key tasks of the Ministry of Education in 2019 clearly pointed out that we should strengthen the popularization of the national common language and script and the scientific protection of language resources; build people’s identity with the national common language and scrip, and cultivate a sense of community of the Chinese nation through the popularization of the common language and scrip (Key Tasks, 2019). More than that, a lot of research has shown that language skills themselves are an important human capital (Chiswick and Miller, 2007). Language as an important form of expression of culture, is also the third largest force for driving economic growth (Aghion & Howitt, 2009). This is because individuals with language skills have better job opportunities (Gao and Smyth, 2011), can expand their social networks (Wang et al., 2016), and improve their work efficiency (Stohr, 2015; Chiswick and Miller, 2014). Therefore, language ability has a great impact on the absolute value and relative rank of the income of workers (Lu Ming and Zhang Shuang, 2007; Gao & Long, 2014) At present, some achievements have been made in the research of linguistic economics in China. However, all these studies are mostly based on a broadly sampled microscopic survey database to analyze the effect the laborers’ language ability has on income. Few of them took the ethnic minority labor force as the target when analyzing the effect of language on income, and there is not even a specific study on the effect of Chinese language ability on the income of ethnic minorities in cities. Language is very important for urban ethnic minorities to integrate into the city and adapt to urban life. In particular, the ability to speak the Chinese is of great help to urban ethnic minority people in finding jobs, communicating and doing business with others, and making friends with people of different ethnic background and be doing so expand their social networks. Therefore, for the urban ethnic minorities who are familiar with their ethnic languages, their Chinese language proficiency almost certainly must have an obvious effect on their income. Based on the data of the “Comprehensive Survey on the Economic and Social Development of China’s Urban Ethnic Minorities” conducted by the School of Economics of Southwest Minzu University in 2016, this article specifically analyzes the impact on income of Chinese language proficiency of urban ethnic minorities. The literature review concerning the analysis of the effect national language and scrip has on income all show that although the research findings prove that having command of the common language and script has obvious income effect, and that there are different conclusions in the analysis of an individual’s ability effect of the commonly-used language. For example, Chen Yuanyuan (2016) believes that Mandarin and individual ability (“listening” and “speaking”) will have a significant impact on the workers’ income. However, Wang Zhaopin et al. (2019) found that having a “listening” ability in Mandarin among ethnic minorities has no significant impact on their income, whereas having a “speaking” ability does have a significant impact on the income of the ethnic minority labor force. Nevertheless, none of the above studies made a special investigation and analysis on “reading” ability as part of the comprehensive language ability. For this reason, this article not only analyzes the effect on income of comprehensive Chinese ability of urban ethnic minority people, but also intends to analyze whether having a “reading” ability of the national common language and scrip has a significant impact on income for urban ethnic minorities. This is an important supplement to the research objectives and content of the effect on income of the national common language and scrip in China. This article adopts the Mincer equation to analyze the impact Chinese proficiency has on income of the urban ethnic minority in China, and finds that there is a significant impact on income on those with comprehensive Chinese ability. The per capita annual income of urban ethnic minority families will increase by 7.5% and the income of equivalent family size will increase by 6.26% when raising the level of comprehensive Chinese ability. Moreover, this effect can be verified steadily and consistently in ethnic minority areas. However, the effect on the income of the urban ethnic minority’s having Chinese reading ability is not significant. In addition, the quantile regression results of comprehensive Chinese language ability show that the marginal contribution of having comprehensive Chinese language ability to the per capita annual income and an equivalent scale income of urban ethnic minority low-income families is greater, and the low-income families are almost twice as large as the high-income families. Meanwhile, the marginal contribution of education, political status and social relations on the effect of income in urban low-income families is also greater than that of high-income families. This article points out that in order to improve annual family income and an equivalent scale of family income of urban ethnic minorities, multiple channels of comprehensive Chinese language training and Chinese listening and speaking training should be carried out in order for ethnic minorities to enhance their comprehensive Chinese language ability.
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